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Gene Review

SOX9  -  SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9

Gallus gallus

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High impact information on SOX9


Biological context of SOX9

  • Calcineurin was found as a positive regulator of chondrogenesis in chondrifying chicken micromass cultures (HDCs), as cyclosporine A (CsA) reduced both the amount of cartilage and the expression of mRNAs of aggrecan and the chondrogenic transcription factor Sox9 [3].
  • The ERK inhibitor PD098059 attenuated the depletion of cartilage matrix as well as decreased the expression and phosphorylation of Sox9 in cultures treated with H(2)O(2) or CsA [3].
  • The up-regulation is concomitant with the beginning of SOX9 expression and a sex dimorphic level of DMRT1 transcripts [4].
  • This gene shows a high degree of sequence homology to SOX9 and SOX10 [5].
  • SOX3 expression was observed prior to clear SOX9 expression and was up-regulated in both sexes at the onset of gonadal sex differentiation (but declined later in development) [6].

Anatomical context of SOX9

  • To clarify the role SOX9 plays in vertebrate sex determination, we have investigated its expression during gonad development in mouse and chicken embryos [7].
  • The conservation of sexually dimorphic expression in two vertebrate classes which have significant differences in their sex determination mechanisms, points to a fundamental role for SOX9 in testis determination in vertebrates [7].
  • Coexpression of the three genes, of which SOX9 is a specific Sertoli-cell marker, provides strong evidence for the transdifferentiation of ovarian into testicular epithelium in gonads of female chickens treated with Fadrozole [8].
  • We previously demonstrated that, unlike in mammals, the onset of AMH expression occurs in chick embryo in the absence of SOX9 [4].
  • Sox9 expression is normally limited to the region of the posterior gizzard under the regulation of BMP signaling from the adjacent midgut [9].

Associations of SOX9 with chemical compounds

  • Hydrogen peroxide inhibits formation of cartilage in chicken micromass cultures and decreases the activity of calcineurin: implication of ERK1/2 and Sox9 pathways [3].

Regulatory relationships of SOX9

  • SOX9 expression was also activated during female-to-male sex reversal but appeared delayed relative to DMRT1 upregulation [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SOX9

  • In the present study we have isolated Sox9 cDNAs from quail and duck, and examined the expression patterns of the corresponding genes in early embryonic gonads by whole-mount in situ hybridization [11].


  1. Functional analysis of Sox8 during neural crest development in Xenopus. O'donnell, M., Hong, C.S., Huang, X., Delnicki, R.J., Saint-Jeannet, J.P. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. SOX9 specifies the pyloric sphincter epithelium through mesenchymal-epithelial signals. Moniot, B., Biau, S., Faure, S., Nielsen, C.M., Berta, P., Roberts, D.J., de Santa Barbara, P. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Hydrogen peroxide inhibits formation of cartilage in chicken micromass cultures and decreases the activity of calcineurin: implication of ERK1/2 and Sox9 pathways. Zákány, R., Szíjgyártó, Z., Matta, C., Juhász, T., Csortos, C., Szucs, K., Czifra, G., Bíró, T., Módis, L., Gergely, P. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Different patterns of anti-Müllerian hormone expression, as related to DMRT1, SF-1, WT1, GATA-4, Wnt-4, and Lhx9 expression, in the chick differentiating gonads. Oréal, E., Mazaud, S., Picard, J.Y., Magre, S., Carré-Eusèbe, D. Dev. Dyn. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. SOX8 expression during chick embryogenesis. Bell, K.M., Western, P.S., Sinclair, A.H. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Gene expression during gonadogenesis in the chicken embryo. Smith, C.A., Smith, M.J., Sinclair, A.H. Gene (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. A male-specific role for SOX9 in vertebrate sex determination. Kent, J., Wheatley, S.C., Andrews, J.E., Sinclair, A.H., Koopman, P. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of AMH, SF1, and SOX9 in gonads of genetic female chickens during sex reversal induced by an aromatase inhibitor. Vaillant, S., Magre, S., Dorizzi, M., Pieau, C., Richard-Mercier, N. Dev. Dyn. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Sox9 and Nkx2.5 determine the pyloric sphincter epithelium under the control of BMP signaling. Theodosiou, N.A., Tabin, C.J. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. DMRT1 is upregulated in the gonads during female-to-male sex reversal in ZW chicken embryos. Smith, C.A., Katz, M., Sinclair, A.H. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Nucleotide sequence and embryonic expression of quail and duck Sox9 genes. Takada, S., Ota, J., Kansaku, N., Yamashita, H., Izumi, T., Ishikawa, M., Wada, T., Kaneda, R., Choi, Y.L., Koinuma, K., Fujiwara, S., Aoki, H., Kisanuki, H., Yamashita, Y., Mano, H. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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