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Gene Review

pbp2  -  penicillin-binding protein 2

Staphylococcus aureus RF122

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Disease relevance of pbp2


High impact information on pbp2


Chemical compound and disease context of pbp2


Biological context of pbp2


Anatomical context of pbp2

  • The VraS/VraR two-component regulatory system is inducible by cell-wall antimicrobials (beta-lactams, glycopeptides) and controls transcriptional induction of many cell-wall genes including pbp2 and itself [11].

Associations of pbp2 with chemical compounds

  • These data demonstrate that although expressions of mecA and pbp2 are required for oxacillin resistance, they are not sufficient [11].
  • It was recently reported that transposon inactivation of pbp2 causes a reduction in methicillin resistance, but complementation experiments were not fully successful [2].
  • With high-resistance strains, flomoxef induced PBP 2' to an extent similar to that of cefazolin in both penicillinase-producing and -negative strains, except for one strain in which the induction did not occur [14].
  • Penicillin-binding protein 2', 2, and 4 fractions were scarcely detectable in MR S. aureus strains grown in the presence of fosfomycin at concentrations of 0.25 MIC and 0.5 MIC, respectively [15].
  • With penicillinase-producing strains of the low-resistance group, cefazolin, cefamandole, and cefmetazole induced PBP 2' production about 5-fold, while flomoxef induced production 2.4-fold or less [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pbp2

  • Western blot (immunoblot) analysis demonstrated specific binding of the antibodies to PBP2' of a methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain [13].
  • An immunoradiometric assay was developed by using these antibodies for simple detection of PBP2' [13].
  • Experimental proof that this point mutation was responsible for the drug-resistant phenotype, and also for the decreased PBP2 affinity and reduced cell wall cross-linking, was provided by allelic replacement experiments and site-directed mutagenesis [16].
  • One specimen identified as MRSA by susceptibility testing but PBP2' negative by latex agglutination was confirmed as mecA gene negative by PCR [9].
  • The difference in the RT-PCR results among the polyoxometalates suggests that there remain other factors for the inhibition of PBP2' production such as post-transcription process [17].


  1. VraSR two-component regulatory system and its role in induction of pbp2 and vraSR expression by cell wall antimicrobials in Staphylococcus aureus. Yin, S., Daum, R.S., Boyle-Vavra, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Transcriptional analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus penicillin binding protein 2 gene. Pinho, M.G., de Lencastre, H., Tomasz, A. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Studies on anti-MRSA parenteral cephalosporins. III. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 7beta-[2-(5-amino-1,2,4-thiadiazol-3-yl)-2(Z)-alkoxyiminoacetamido-3. Ishikawa, T., Kamiyama, K., Nakayama, Y., Iizawa, Y., Okonogi, K., Miyake, A. J. Antibiot. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Transcriptional induction of the penicillin-binding protein 2 gene in Staphylococcus aureus by cell wall-active antibiotics oxacillin and vancomycin. Boyle-Vavra, S., Yin, S., Challapalli, M., Daum, R.S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of OPC-20011, a novel parenteral broad-spectrum 2-oxaisocephem antibiotic. Matsumoto, M., Tamaoka, H., Ishikawa, H., Kikuchi, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Increased production of penicillin-binding protein 2, increased detection of other penicillin-binding proteins, and decreased coagulase activity associated with glycopeptide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Moreira, B., Boyle-Vavra, S., deJonge, B.L., Daum, R.S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Point mutations in Staphylococcus aureus PBP 2 gene affect penicillin-binding kinetics and are associated with resistance. Hackbarth, C.J., Kocagoz, T., Kocagoz, S., Chambers, H.F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Increased susceptibility to cephamycin-type antibiotics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus defective in penicillin-binding protein 2. Murakami, K., Nomura, K., Doi, M., Yoshida, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. A rapid latex agglutination assay for the detection of penicillin-binding protein 2'. Nakatomi, Y., Sugiyama, J. Microbiol. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Fosfomycin enhances the expression of penicillin-binding protein 2 in methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Najioullah, F., Pellon, G., Freney, J., Michel, G., Fleurette, J. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. The VraS/VraR two-component regulatory system required for oxacillin resistance in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Boyle-Vavra, S., Yin, S., Daum, R.S. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Moenomycin-resistance is associated with vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus. Nishi, H., Komatsuzawa, H., Yamada, S., Fujiwara, T., Ohara, M., Ohta, K., Sugiyama, M., Ishikawa, T., Sugai, M. Microbiol. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunological detection of penicillin-binding protein 2' of methicillin-resistant staphylococci by using monoclonal antibodies prepared from synthetic peptides. Saito, M., Sekiguchi, K., Yajima, R., Hina, M., Doss, R.C., Kanno, H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Production of low-affinity penicillin-binding protein by low- and high-resistance groups of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Murakami, K., Nomura, K., Doi, M., Yoshida, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Antibacterial activity of cefmetazole alone and in combination with fosfomycin against methicillin- and cephem-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Utsui, Y., Ohya, S., Magaribuchi, T., Tajima, M., Yokota, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Role of penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) in the antibiotic susceptibility and cell wall cross-linking of Staphylococcus aureus: evidence for the cooperative functioning of PBP2, PBP4, and PBP2A. Łeski, T.A., Tomasz, A. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Synergistic effect of polyoxometalates in combination with oxacillin against methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a high initial inoculum of 1 x 108 cfu/ml for in vivo test. Inoue, M., Suzuki, T., Fujita, Y., Oda, M., Matsumoto, N., Iijima, J., Yamase, T. Biomed. Pharmacother. (2006) [Pubmed]
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