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MRSA  -  Mental retardation, X-linked, South...

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of MRSA


Psychiatry related information on MRSA


High impact information on MRSA

  • The clinical syndromes associated with MRSA in children without identified risk were similar to those associated with community-acquired methicillin-susceptible S aureus [11].
  • DESIGN--Restriction endonuclease analysis of plasmid DNA (REAP) was used in the analysis of 45 MRSA isolates [12].
  • We recently discovered an emerging neonatal infectious disease, neonatal toxic shock syndrome-like (TSS-like) exanthematous disease (NTED), which is induced by a superantigen, TSS toxin-1 (TSST-1), produced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [13].
  • Here, we analyzed the activation and the response of TSST-1-reactive Vss2(+) T cells in NTED patients during the acute and recovery phases and in asymptomatic infants exposed to MRSA [13].
  • Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of MRSA


Biological context of MRSA

  • From our results, one may conclude that the pool of circulating MSSA strains is an important parameter with regard to the epidemiology of hospital- and community-acquired MRSA clones and their potential virulence [1].
  • The MRSA strains that were sequence type 8 (ST8), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive clustered separately from those that were ST5 and SCCmec type II [19].
  • We performed a blinded study to compare repetitive-sequence PCR and multilocus sequence typing for genotyping hospital- and community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [19].
  • In contrast, simultaneously circulating MRSA strains (n = 24) harbored in general two or three genes of the enterotoxin gene cluster, and the tst-positive MRSA isolates belonged to the well-known epidemic types ST22, ST45, and ST228 and were classified as spa types t001, t028, and t032 [1].
  • Emergence of MRSA infections in horses in a veterinary hospital: strain characterisation and comparison with MRSA from humans [20].

Anatomical context of MRSA

  • DESIGN: Monthly surveillance for MRSA colonization of nares, perineum, rectum, and wounds [21].
  • In summary, the susceptibility of S. aureus strains, including MRSA strains, to components of the innate immune system varies, with the MRSA strains showing more resistance to both innate immune factors and chemotherapeutic agents [22].
  • Methicillin- and cephem-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were found to be unable to grow in sputum from patients treated with a beta-lactam antibiotic [23].
  • In an attempt to control the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) within a spinal cord injury unit, we investigated the mode of transmission and implemented a multidisciplinary approach for control that consisted of grouping of patients into cohorts, contact isolation, and antibiotics [24].
  • In this study, we compared the efficacy of daptomycin with that of vancomycin, each with or without rifampin, in a model of experimental aortic valve endocarditis due to MRSA [25].

Associations of MRSA with chemical compounds

  • Except for one MRSA isolate, synergic killing was demonstrated with clinically achievable concentrations of vancomycin (0.5-1 mg/L) and cefepime (methicillin-susceptible isolates: 0.5-1 mg/L; methicillin-resistant isolates: 2-64 mg/L) [2].
  • The multiplex PCR correctly distinguished between isolates of S. aureus, which were sensitive to methicillin (MSSA) and those resistant to it (MRSA) [26].
  • Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC90) and geometric mean MICs for sparfloxacin were as follows (mg/l): P. aeruginosa 128-23.7, E. cloacae 1-0.13, A. anitratus 2-0.14, K. pneumoniae 1-0.08, MRSA 16-0.98, MSSA 0.12-0.03, MRSE 0.25-0.12 and MSSE 0.12-0.05 [27].
  • Gentamicin is active against more than 95% of MRSA strains cultured in our hospital and against 87% of MRSA strains cultured in the neurosurgery unit [28].
  • A number-needed-to-treat (NNT) analysis showed that, with MRSA prevalence at 15%, cefuroxime plus gentamicin at induction could prevent one MRSA infection per 421 treated patients compared with cefuroxime alone [28].

Other interactions of MRSA

  • For 10 of the clinical isolates (two MSSA, three MRSA, two MSSE, three MRSE) and the reference strain, the interaction of cefepime and vancomycin was also determined by the time-kill method [2].
  • However, all MRSA isolates with a type 8 capsule showed identical PFGE patterns using the 2 restriction-endonuclease enzymes Sma I and SST II [29].
  • Vancomycin can be reserved for patients known to be colonized with MRSA (NNT: 51) [28].
  • All MRSA isolates were screened for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes by use of polymerase chain reaction, and isolate relatedness was determined by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) [30].
  • These data suggest and confirm the clonality of type 5 and type 8 MRSA isolates [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MRSA


  1. Heterogeneity of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains at a German University Hospital implicates the circulating-strain pool as a potential source of emerging methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones. Layer, F., Ghebremedhin, B., König, W., König, B. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. In vitro synergy between cefepime and vancomycin against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Lozniewski, A., Lion, C., Mory, F., Weber, M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Habituation to sub-lethal concentrations of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) is associated with reduced susceptibility to antibiotics in human pathogens. S McMahon, M.A., Blair, I.S., Moore, J.E., McDowell, D.A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. In vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin against clinical isolates of common gram-positive bacteria in Taiwan. Chang, S.C., Fang, C.T., Hsueh, P.R., Luh, K.T., Hsieh, W.C. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria by human vaginal lactobacilli. Voravuthikunchai, S.P., Bilasoi, S., Supamala, O. Anaerobe (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Slow response to vancomycin or vancomycin plus rifampin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Levine, D.P., Fromm, B.S., Reddy, B.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a health center ward and associated nursing home. Kotilainen, P., Routamaa, M., Peltonen, R., Evesti, P., Eerola, E., Salmenlinna, S., Vuopio-Varkila, J., Rossi, T. Arch. Intern. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in institutionalized adults with developmental disabilities. Borer, A., Gilad, J., Yagupsky, P., Peled, N., Porat, N., Trefler, R., Shprecher-Levy, H., Riesenberg, K., Shipman, M., Schlaeffer, F. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. True community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Akram, J., Glatt, A.E. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus ocular surface infection efficacy of chloramphenicol eye drops. Fukuda, M., Ohashi, H., Matsumoto, C., Mishima, S., Shimomura, Y. Cornea (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with no identified predisposing risk. Herold, B.C., Immergluck, L.C., Maranan, M.C., Lauderdale, D.S., Gaskin, R.E., Boyle-Vavra, S., Leitch, C.D., Daum, R.S. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Value of molecular epidemiologic analysis in a nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak. Fang, F.C., McClelland, M., Guiney, D.G., Jackson, M.M., Hartstein, A.I., Morthland, V.H., Davis, C.E., McPherson, D.C., Welsh, J. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunopathophysiological aspects of an emerging neonatal infectious disease induced by a bacterial superantigen. Takahashi, N., Kato, H., Imanishi, K., Miwa, K., Yamanami, S., Nishida, H., Uchiyama, T. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA. Baba, T., Takeuchi, F., Kuroda, M., Yuzawa, H., Aoki, K., Oguchi, A., Nagai, Y., Iwama, N., Asano, K., Naimi, T., Kuroda, H., Cui, L., Yamamoto, K., Hiramatsu, K. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Linezolid resistance in a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Tsiodras, S., Gold, H.S., Sakoulas, G., Eliopoulos, G.M., Wennersten, C., Venkataraman, L., Moellering, R.C., Ferraro, M.J. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Attempts to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a long-term-care facility with the use of mupirocin ointment. Kauffman, C.A., Terpenning, M.S., He, X., Zarins, L.T., Ramsey, M.A., Jorgensen, K.A., Sottile, W.S., Bradley, S.F. Am. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Ciprofloxacin for eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Mulligan, M.E., Ruane, P.J., Johnston, L., Wong, P., Wheelock, J.P., MacDonald, K., Reinhardt, J.F., Johnson, C.C., Statner, B., Blomquist, I. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Evaluation of the bactericidal activity of temafloxacin. Jacobs, M.R. Am. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Blinded comparison of repetitive-sequence PCR and multilocus sequence typing for genotyping methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a children's hospital in St. Louis, Missouri. Liao, R.S., Storch, G.A., Buller, R.S., Orscheln, R.C., Mardis, E.R., Armstrong, J.R., Dunne, W.M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Emergence of MRSA infections in horses in a veterinary hospital: strain characterisation and comparison with MRSA from humans. Cuny, C., Kuemmerle, J., Stanek, C., Willey, B., Strommenger, B., Witte, W. Euro surveillance : bulletin européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: colonization and infection in a long-term care facility. Bradley, S.F., Terpenning, M.S., Ramsey, M.A., Zarins, L.T., Jorgensen, K.A., Sottile, W.S., Schaberg, D.R., Kauffman, C.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Innate defences against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Komatsuzawa, H., Ouhara, K., Yamada, S., Fujiwara, T., Sayama, K., Hashimoto, K., Sugai, M. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Alternative activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against methicillin- and cephem-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of respiratory tract mucus. Igarashi, K., Matsuyama, T. J. Infect. Dis. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Eradication of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by using oral minocycline-rifampin and topical mupirocin. Darouiche, R., Wright, C., Hamill, R., Koza, M., Lewis, D., Markowski, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Efficacy of daptomycin in experimental endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Sakoulas, G., Eliopoulos, G.M., Alder, J., Eliopoulos, C.T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci by multiplex PCR. Kearns, A.M., Seiders, P.R., Wheeler, J., Freeman, R., Steward, M. J. Hosp. Infect. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparative in vitro activity of sparfloxacin (AT 4140, RP 64206--SPFX) against 275 multiresistant clinical isolates. Giamarellou, H., Voutsinas, D., Xirouchaki, E. Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Investigation of prevalence of MRSA in referrals to neurosurgery: implications for antibiotic prophylaxis. Hammond, C.J., Gill, J., Peto, T.E., Cadoux-Hudson, T.A., Bowler, I.C. British journal of neurosurgery. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Molecular, antibiogram and serological typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from Al-Makased Hospital in East Jerusalem. Essawi, T., Na'was, T., Hawwari, A., Wadi, S., Doudin, A., Fattom, A.I. Trop. Med. Int. Health (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Suspected transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus between domestic pets and humans in veterinary clinics and in the household. Weese, J.S., Dick, H., Willey, B.M., McGeer, A., Kreiswirth, B.N., Innis, B., Low, D.E. Vet. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Evaluation of the extracellular and intracellular activities (human THP-1 macrophages) of telavancin versus vancomycin against methicillin-susceptible, methicillin-resistant, vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Barcia-Macay, M., Lemaire, S., Mingeot-Leclercq, M.P., Tulkens, P.M., Van Bambeke, F. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Staphylococcal septicaemia in burns. Gang, R.K., Sanyal, S.C., Bang, R.L., Mokaddas, E., Lari, A.R. Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Control of endemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a cost-benefit analysis in an intensive care unit. Chaix, C., Durand-Zaleski, I., Alberti, C., Brun-Buisson, C. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
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