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Gene Review

RHE_PD00269  -  nodulation protein

Rhizobium etli CFN 42

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Disease relevance of RHE_PD00269

  • Since this is the region at which Rhizobium binding occurs and at which nodulation probably is initiated, all the reported observations on the root lectin are consistent with its proposed role in the specific interaction of the developing soybean with its symbiont [1].
  • NodD1 is a member of the NodD family of LysR-type transcriptional regulators that mediates the expression of nodulation (nod) genes in the soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti [2].
  • Nodulation of actinorhizal plants (Alnus rubra Bong, and others) by isolated Frankia strains occurred either at a low frequency or not at all under axenic conditions [3].
  • Four strains of Pseudomonas cepacia also promoted nodulation [3].
  • Eleven strains of Rhizobium and five strains of Bradyrhizobium were examined for their viability as well nodulation and nitrogen fixation ability after storage under different conditions for two years [4].

High impact information on RHE_PD00269


Chemical compound and disease context of RHE_PD00269

  • This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu(2+) activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing > or =0.77 microM Cu(2+), rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population [9].
  • Dual infections of Glycine max with VA endophytes and Rhizobium, compared with Rhizobium alone, increased the number and weight of nodules significantly in natural field soil and obviated the need of phosphate application for successful nodulation [10].

Biological context of RHE_PD00269

  • Subsequently, the phylogeny of nodulating plants is described and a comparison is made between several aspects of legume and actinorhizal nodulation [11].
  • Analysis of Nod-factor-induced calcium signaling in root hairs of symbiotically defective mutants of Lotus japonicus [12].
  • This suggests that a deficiency in signal transduction is the reason for nodulation failure in the mature root [13].
  • We tested whether the inability to form nodules in the mature root is due to a lack of plant flavonoids to induce the bacterial genes required for nodulation or a failure of mature cortical cells to respond to Rhizobium spp [13].
  • The synthesis of periplasmic beta(1-2)glucan is required for crown gall tumor formation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and for effective nodulation of alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti [14].

Anatomical context of RHE_PD00269

  • In contrast to the R. fredii host-inducible gene, expression of ORF3 is not induced in the presence of Phaseolus vulgaris root exudates or by specific flavonoids, able to induce nodulation genes in R. l. bv. phaseoli [15].
  • In this work the influence of the nodulation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants on the oxidative metabolism of different leaf organelles from young and senescent plants was studied [16].

Associations of RHE_PD00269 with chemical compounds

  • We studied the ethylene-insensitive, hypernodulating mutant, sickle (skl), to investigate the interaction of ethylene with auxin transport during root nodulation in Medicago truncatula [7].
  • Using ethylmethane sulfonate mutagenesis as a tool to identify plant genes involved in symbiotic nodule development, we have isolated and analyzed five nodulation mutants, Ljsym74-3, Ljsym79-2, Ljsym79-3, Ljsym80, and Ljsym82, from the model legume Lotus japonicus [17].
  • A highly upregulated gene in bacteroids, mlr5932 (encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase), was disrupted and was confirmed to be involved in nodulation enhancement, indicating that disruption of highly expressed genes is a useful strategy for exploring novel gene functions in symbiosis [18].
  • Metabolic engineering of rice with soybean isoflavone synthase for promoting nodulation gene expression in rhizobia [19].
  • The effect of Cu(2+) on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu(2+) [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RHE_PD00269

  • Using a dual dye ratiometric calcium imaging technique, we have shown that 10 nM Nod factor added to roots of Lotus japonicus seedlings induces an intracellular calcium increase (calcium flux) that precedes oscillations in intracellular calcium (calcium spiking) [12].


  1. The isolation and characterization of a root lectin from soybean (Glycine max (L), cultivar Chippewa). Gade, W., Jack, M.A., Dahl, J.B., Schmidt, E.L., Wold, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Diverse flavonoids stimulate NodD1 binding to nod gene promoters in Sinorhizobium meliloti. Peck, M.C., Fisher, R.F., Long, S.R. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Evidence that associated soil bacteria may influence root hair infection of actinorhizal plants by Frankia. Knowlton, S., Berry, A., Torrey, J.G. Can. J. Microbiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Survival, nodulation and N2 fixation ability of root nodule bacteria under different nutritional regimes. Bakshi, D., Mukhopadhyay, A., Sinhababu, A., Pal, S.C., Mandal, N.C. Indian J. Exp. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Rhizobium leguminosarum exoB mutants are deficient in the synthesis of UDP-glucose 4'-epimerase. Canter Cremers, H.C., Batley, M., Redmond, J.W., Eydems, L., Breedveld, M.W., Zevehuizen, L.P., Pees, E., Wijffelman, C.A., Lugtenberg, B.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Two plasmids other than the nodulation plasmid are necessary for formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules by Rhizobium leguminosarum. Hynes, M.F., McGregor, N.F. Mol. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. The Ethylene-Insensitive sickle Mutant of Medicago truncatula Shows Altered Auxin Transport Regulation during Nodulation. Prayitno, J., Rolfe, B.G., Mathesius, U. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. A CDPK isoform participates in the regulation of nodule number in Medicago truncatula. Gargantini, P.R., Gonzalez-Rizzo, S., Chinchilla, D., Raices, M., Giammaria, V., Ulloa, R.M., Frugier, F., Crespi, M.D. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Kopittke, P.M., Dart, P.J., Menzies, N.W. Environ. Pollut. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza and nodulation in soybean. Varma, A.K. Folia Microbiol. (Praha) (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. The evolution of nodulation. Gualtieri, G., Bisseling, T. Plant Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Analysis of Nod-factor-induced calcium signaling in root hairs of symbiotically defective mutants of Lotus japonicus. Miwa, H., Sun, J., Oldroyd, G.E., Downie, J.A. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Rhizobia can induce nodules in white clover by "hijacking" mature cortical cells activated during lateral root development. Mathesius, U., Weinman, J.J., Rolfe, B.G., Djordjevic, M.A. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Biochemical characterization of avirulent exoC mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Uttaro, A.D., Cangelosi, G.A., Geremia, R.A., Nester, E.W., Ugalde, R.A. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification and characterization of a Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli gene that is important for nodulation competitiveness and shows structural homology to a Rhizobium fredii host-inducible gene. Michiels, J., Pelemans, H., Vlassak, K., Verreth, C., Vanderleyden, J. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Antioxidative enzymes from chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes during leaf senescence of nodulated pea plants. Palma, J.M., Jiménez, A., Sandalio, L.M., Corpas, F.J., Lundqvist, M., Gómez, M., Sevilla, F., del Río, L.A. J. Exp. Bot. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. New nodulation mutants responsible for infection thread development in Lotus japonicus. Yano, K., Tansengco, M.L., Hio, T., Higashi, K., Murooka, Y., Imaizumi-Anraku, H., Kawaguchi, M., Hayashi, M. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression islands clustered on the symbiosis island of the Mesorhizobium loti genome. Uchiumi, T., Ohwada, T., Itakura, M., Mitsui, H., Nukui, N., Dawadi, P., Kaneko, T., Tabata, S., Yokoyama, T., Tejima, K., Saeki, K., Omori, H., Hayashi, M., Maekawa, T., Sriprang, R., Murooka, Y., Tajima, S., Simomura, K., Nomura, M., Suzuki, A., Shimoda, Y., Sioya, K., Abe, M., Minamisawa, K. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Metabolic engineering of rice with soybean isoflavone synthase for promoting nodulation gene expression in rhizobia. Sreevidya, V.S., Srinivasa Rao, C., Sullia, S.B., Ladha, J.K., Reddy, P.M. J. Exp. Bot. (2006) [Pubmed]
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