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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Frankia

  • It overlaps putative proline tRNA genes having a 3'-terminal CCA sequence, an uncommon feature among actinomycetes. pSAM2 is able to integrate into a cloned Frankia attB site harbored in Streptomyces lividans [1].
  • The Frankia glnII gene was also capable of complementing an Escherichia coli delta glnA mutant when transcribed from the vector lac promoter, but not when transcribed from the Frankia promoter [2].
  • In 1991 putative Frankia cosmid library clones were reported to restore normal nodulation properties to Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae nodD::Tn5, but no supporting sequence data were published [3].
  • We have shown previously that the vesicle envelope is composed primarily of two species of hopanoid lipids, sterol-like molecules that are synthesized in a wide range of bacteria, including Frankia, several cyanobacteria, and rhizobia [4].

High impact information on Frankia

  • A Type II restriction endonuclease, designated FseI, has been partially purified from a Frankia species (NRRL 18528) [5].
  • Close linkage of genes encoding glutamine synthetases I and II in Frankia alni CpI1 [6].
  • Southern blot hybridization experiments showed that sequences similar to glnB were present in all of the five other Streptomyces species tested, as well as Frankia species [7].
  • B. japonicum glnII was used as a probe to clone the glnII gene from a size-selected KpnI library of Frankia strain CpI1 DNA [2].
  • The isolates from M. pennsylvanica evaluated in this study were characteristic of Frankia physiological group B strains and were indistinguishable on the basis of whole-cell wall chemistry and diaminopimelic acid isomer analysis [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Frankia

  • Enzymes of glucose metabolism in Frankia sp [9].
  • Evidence for adenylate nucleotide transport (ATP-ADP translocation) in vesicles of Frankia sp. strain EAN1pec [10].
  • Frankia are Gram-positive, filamentous bacteria capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen either in the free-living state or in symbiosis with a variety of woody plants [11].
  • The codon usage was similar to that of previously sequenced Frankia genes with a strong bias toward G- and C-ending codons except in the case of glycine where GGT is frequent [12].
  • Two of the hopanoids found, bacteriohopanetetrols and their phenylacetic acid esters, have previously been described in Frankia Two new hopanoids, moretan-29-ol and a bacteriohopanetetrol propionate, have also been identified [13].

Biological context of Frankia

  • Reported here are nine partial Frankia 16S rRNA gene sequences including the first from host plants of the rosaceous genera Cercocarpus and Chamaebatia, 24 partial glutamine synthetase (GSI; glnA) sequences from Frankia in nodules of 17 of the 23 actinorhizal genera, and the partial glnA sequence of Acidothermus cellulolyticus [14].
  • Effect of O2 on vesicle formation, acetylene reduction, and O2-uptake kinetics in Frankia sp. HFPCcI3 isolated from Casuarina cunninghamiana [15].

Anatomical context of Frankia


Gene context of Frankia

  • In 1992 a second group reported a failure to find any evidence of functional complementation of various rhizobial nod mutants by Frankia DNA (nodA, nodB and nodC) [3].
  • A recA gene phylogenetic analysis confirms the close proximity of Frankia to Acidothermus [17].
  • Thus pAt2GX contains a Frankia gene that is functionally equivalent to nodD of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae [18].
  • All of these strains were isolated from the surface of marble in Namibia and Greece and from limestone from the Negev desert, Israel. One strain, G10, of Namibia origin was equidistantly related to Geodermatophilus obscurus, Frankia alni, Sporichthya polymorpha, and Acidothermus cellulolyticus [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Frankia


  1. Cloning of Frankia species putative tRNA(Pro) genes and their efficacy for pSAM2 site-specific integration in Streptomyces lividans. Alegre, M.T., Cournoyer, B., Mesas, J.M., Guérineau, M., Normand, P., Pernodet, J.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression of the glutamine synthetase II (glnII) gene from the actinomycete root nodule symbiont Frankia sp. strain CpI1. Rochefort, D.A., Benson, D.R. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Genetic complementation of rhizobial nod mutants with Frankia DNA: artifact or reality? Cérémonie, H., Cournoyer, B., Maillet, F., Normand, P., Fernandez, M.P. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Hopanoid lipids in Frankia: identification of squalene-hopene cyclase gene sequences. Dobritsa, S.V., Potter, D., Gookin, T.E., Berry, A.M. Can. J. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. FseI, a new type II restriction endonuclease that recognizes the octanucleotide sequence 5' GGCCGGCC 3'. Nelson, J.M., Miceli, S.M., Lechevalier, M.P., Roberts, R.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Close linkage of genes encoding glutamine synthetases I and II in Frankia alni CpI1. Hosted, T.J., Rochefort, D.A., Benson, D.R. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Streptomyces hygroscopicus has two glutamine synthetase genes. Kumada, Y., Takano, E., Nagaoka, K., Thompson, C.J. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Physiological, chemical, morphological, and plant infectivity characteristics of Frankia isolates from Myrica pennsylvanica: correlation to DNA restriction patterns. Bloom, R.A., Lechevalier, M.P., Tate, R.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Enzymes of glucose metabolism in Frankia sp. Lopez, M.F., Torrey, J.G. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Evidence for adenylate nucleotide transport (ATP-ADP translocation) in vesicles of Frankia sp. strain EAN1pec. Tisa, L.S., Ensign, J.C. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Frankia sequences exhibiting RNA polymerase promoter activity. Bock, J.V., Battershell, T., Wiggington, J., John, T.R., Johnson, J.D. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular structure of the Frankia spp. nifD-K intergenic spacer and design of Frankia genus compatible primer. Nalin, R., Domenach, A.M., Normand, P. Mol. Ecol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. High hopanoid/total lipids ratio in Frankia mycelia is not related to the nitrogen status. Nalin, R., Putra, S.R., Domenach, A.M., Rohmer, M., Gourbiere, F., Berry, A.M. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Assessing the phylogeny of Frankia-actinorhizal plant nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with Frankia 16S rRNA and glutamine synthetase gene sequences. Clawson, M.L., Bourret, A., Benson, D.R. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of O2 on vesicle formation, acetylene reduction, and O2-uptake kinetics in Frankia sp. HFPCcI3 isolated from Casuarina cunninghamiana. Murry, M.A., Zhongze, Z., Torrey, J.G. Can. J. Microbiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of the sodF gene region of Frankia sp. strain ACN14a and complementation of Escherichia coli sod mutant. Maréchal, J., Santos, R., Hammad, Y., Alloisio, N., Domenach, A.M., Normand, P. Can. J. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. A recA gene phylogenetic analysis confirms the close proximity of Frankia to Acidothermus. Maréchal, J., Clement, B., Nalin, R., Gandon, C., Orso, S., Cvejic, J.H., Bruneteau, M., Berry, A., Normand, P. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of a nodD-like gene in Frankia by direct complementation of a Rhizobium nodD-mutant. Chen, L.M., Cui, Y.H., Qin, M., Wang, Y.L., Bai, X.L., Ma, Q.S. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Morphological, physiological, and molecular characterization of actinomycetes isolated from dry soil, rocks, and monument surfaces. Eppard, M., Krumbein, W.E., Koch, C., Rhiel, E., Staley, J.T., Stackebrandt, E. Arch. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Age-dependent changes in extracellular proteins, aminopeptidase and proteinase activities in Frankia isolate BR. Müller, A., Benoist, P., Diem, H.G., Schwencke, J. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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