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ncam1-b  -  neural cell adhesion molecule 1

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: n-cam, ncam, ncam1
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High impact information on NCAM

  • Gastrula-stage explants grafted onto noggin-expressing oocytes expressed neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and formed cement gland [1].
  • In loss-of-function studies, we found that embryos injected with a morpholino to XIC mRNA (XIC morphpolino) are missing head structures, neural tube, notochord, and paraxial mesoderm as well as NCAM and XMyoD expression [2].
  • To test this in Xenopus, Smad6 mRNA was injected into the A4 blastomere (which reliably contributes to epidermis but not to neural plate or its border) at the 32-cell stage: expression of neural markers (Sox3 and NCAM) is not induced [3].
  • By contrast, the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, was not left behind on the substrate when the neurites were eliminated [4].
  • In contrast, fusing the DNA-binding domain to the even-skipped repressor domain leads to upregulation of the neural markers NCAM and nrp-1 in animal cap assay [5].

Biological context of NCAM


Anatomical context of NCAM


Associations of NCAM with chemical compounds

  • During closure of the neural tube and for 2-4 hr thereafter, NCAM was expressed in a distinctive radial pattern in coronal sections of the neural tube [6].
  • In explants cultured in the presence of H2DIDS, expression of NCAM and the anterior neural gene otx2 is greatly reduced or absent [9].
  • Noradrenaline (10(-6) M) did not switch on otx-2 or NCAM and did not induce the formation of cement glands [12].
  • Treatment of isolated ectoderm with SB 203580 led to expression of otx2, NCAM, and noggin [13].

Regulatory relationships of NCAM


Other interactions of NCAM

  • Microinjection of Xerl mRNA into 2- or 4-cell stage embryos indicated that Xerl overexpression caused the regional expansion of XlSox-2- and NCAM-positive neural plate, which was concomitant with the outer shift of ADAM13-positive region [15].
  • The injected caps expressed a general neural marker NCAM and the forebrain marker opsin [16].
  • However, the expression of NCAM is presumed to be a secondary result of the initial mesoderm induction by Neuregulin [17].


  1. Use of an oocyte expression assay to reconstitute inductive signaling. Lustig, K.D., Kirschner, M.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. XIC is required for Siamois activity and dorsoanterior development. Snider, L., Tapscott, S.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Neural induction requires BMP inhibition only as a late step, and involves signals other than FGF and Wnt antagonists. Linker, C., Stern, C.D. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Neuritic deposition of agrin on culture substrate: implications for nerve-muscle synaptogenesis. Cohen, M.W., Moody-Corbett, F., Godfrey, E.W. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Xenopus X-box binding protein 1, a leucine zipper transcription factor, is involved in the BMP signaling pathway. Zhao, H., Cao, Y., Grunz, H. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Neural cell adhesion molecule expression in Xenopus embryos. Balak, K., Jacobson, M., Sunshine, J., Rutishauser, U. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Developmental regulation of alternative splicing in the mRNA encoding Xenopus laevis neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Zorn, A.M., Krieg, P.A. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Recombinant polypeptides transplanted from pUMA vector-derived cRNAs are translocated through microsomal membranes and exported out of frog oocytes. Dommers, S., Heinlein, U.A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. The role of intracellular alkalinization in the establishment of anterior neural fate in Xenopus. Uzman, J.A., Patil, S., Uzgare, A.R., Sater, A.K. Dev. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of beta-galactoside alpha 2,6 sialyltransferase blocks synthesis of polysialic acid in Xenopus embryos. Livingston, B.D., De Robertis, E.M., Paulson, J.C. Glycobiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Critical role of Cys168 in noggin protein's biological function. Liu, W.D., Feng, X.L., Ren, C.P., Shi, J.L., Yang, X.Y., Zhao, M., Zhou, L., Lan, K., Yao, K.T. Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai) (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The neurotransmitter noradrenaline drives noggin-expressing ectoderm cells to activate N-tubulin and become neurons. Messenger, N.J., Rowe, S.J., Warner, A.E. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Regulation of MAP kinase by the BMP-4/TAK1 pathway in Xenopus ectoderm. Goswami, M., Uzgare, A.R., Sater, A.K. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Lens induction by Pax-6 in Xenopus laevis. Altmann, C.R., Chow, R.L., Lang, R.A., Hemmati-Brivanlou, A. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Xerl, a novel CNS-specific secretory protein, establishes the boundary between neural plate and neural crest. Kuriyama, S., Kinoshita, T. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. A dominant negative bone morphogenetic protein 4 receptor causes neuralization in Xenopus ectoderm. Xu, R.H., Kim, J., Taira, M., Zhan, S., Sredni, D., Kung, H.F. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Neuregulin induces the expression of mesodermal genes in the ectoderm of Xenopus laevis. Chung, H.G., Chung, H.M. Mol. Cells (1999) [Pubmed]
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