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Gene Review

ncam1-a  -  neural cell adhesion molecule 1

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: n-cam, ncam
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High impact information on LOC397761

  • During neurulation, the level of N-CAM expression in the neural ectoderm increased considerably, while remaining constant in non-neural ectoderm and diminishing in the somites; in the notochord, N-CAM was expressed transiently [1].
  • With few exceptions, the tissue distributions of N-CAM and L-CAM were similar in the frog and in the chicken from early times of development [1].
  • During gastrulation, N-CAM levels increased in the presumptive neural epithelium and decreased in the endoderm, but L-CAM continued to be expressed in all cells including endodermal cells [1].
  • Consistent with this finding, XDmrt4 is sufficient to activate neurogenin, Xebf2, and neural cell adhesion molecule expression in animal explants and is required for Noggin-mediated neuralization [2].
  • Gastrula-stage explants grafted onto noggin-expressing oocytes expressed neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and formed cement gland [3].

Biological context of LOC397761


Anatomical context of LOC397761

  • By contrast, the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, was not left behind on the substrate when the neurites were eliminated [8].
  • The spatiotemporal pattern of expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM was mapped immunohistochemically in embryos of the frog Xenopus, from blastula to early swimming stages, using a polyclonal antibody that recognizes Xenopus NCAM [9].
  • Ectopic expression of wild-type (WT) noggin, C174S or C197S, in Xenopus animal caps (ACs) by mRNA injection converted the explants (prospective ectoderm) into neural tissue, as indicated by the neural-like morphology and expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in the ACs [10].
  • We find that transcripts encoding the large cytoplasmic domain form of NCAM exist in maternal RNA and that these are the only significant NCAM transcripts present until late gastrula when transcripts encoding the small cytoplasmic domain form of NCAM are first detected [6].
  • Changes in carbohydrate and polypeptide form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) have been documented during the development of central nervous system tissue in both chicken and frog [11].

Associations of LOC397761 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of LOC397761


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LOC397761

  • Using a classical neural induction protocol (H. Spemann and H. Mangold (1924). Roux' Arch. Entwicklungsmech. Org. 123, 389-517), it has been demonstrated that the sustained presence of NCAM in Xenopus embryos, as detected by immunohistochemistry, was confined to the experimentally induced nervous system and the primary host nervous system [17].
  • PCR analysis however, shows that both NCAM genes are expressed at similar levels throughout embryonic development and in all adult tissues examined [18].
  • Northern blot analysis also indicated that this form is not expressed in adult brain, in which ld-form N-CAM is the main N-CAM expressed [19].
  • These dye movements were mapped onto the neuroepithelium of the developing brain whose shape was gleaned from whole-mount in situs to neural cell adhesion molecule and dissections of the developing nervous system [20].
  • Immunofluorescence and whole-mount in situ hybridization were used to study the expression of tubulin, taken to indicate an early step on the pathway of cell elongation, and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) taken to indicate an early step in the determination of the nervous system [21].


  1. Expression sequences and distribution of two primary cell adhesion molecules during embryonic development of Xenopus laevis. Levi, G., Crossin, K.L., Edelman, G.M. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. The doublesex-related gene, XDmrt4, is required for neurogenesis in the olfactory system. Huang, X., Hong, C.S., O'Donnell, M., Saint-Jeannet, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Use of an oocyte expression assay to reconstitute inductive signaling. Lustig, K.D., Kirschner, M.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Developmental regulation of alternative splicing in the mRNA encoding Xenopus laevis neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Zorn, A.M., Krieg, P.A. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Recombinant polypeptides transplanted from pUMA vector-derived cRNAs are translocated through microsomal membranes and exported out of frog oocytes. Dommers, S., Heinlein, U.A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Primary structure and developmental expression of a large cytoplasmic domain form of Xenopus laevis neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Krieg, P.A., Sakaguchi, D.S., Kintner, C.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Gene activation in response to neural induction. Krieg, P.A., Zorn, A., Ovsenek, N., Johnson, A. Cell. Mol. Biol. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Neuritic deposition of agrin on culture substrate: implications for nerve-muscle synaptogenesis. Cohen, M.W., Moody-Corbett, F., Godfrey, E.W. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Neural cell adhesion molecule expression in Xenopus embryos. Balak, K., Jacobson, M., Sunshine, J., Rutishauser, U. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Critical role of Cys168 in noggin protein's biological function. Liu, W.D., Feng, X.L., Ren, C.P., Shi, J.L., Yang, X.Y., Zhao, M., Zhou, L., Lan, K., Yao, K.T. Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai) (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Changes in neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) structure during vertebrate neural development. Sunshine, J., Balak, K., Rutishauser, U., Jacobson, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. The neural cell adhesion molecule regulates cell-surface delivery of G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channels via lipid rafts. Delling, M., Wischmeyer, E., Dityatev, A., Sytnyk, V., Veh, R.W., Karschin, A., Schachner, M. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Thyroxine-dependent modulations of the expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. Levi, G., Broders, F., Dunon, D., Edelman, G.M., Thiery, J.P. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Chondroitin sulfates modulate axon guidance in embryonic Xenopus brain. Anderson, R.B., Walz, A., Holt, C.E., Key, B. Dev. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Primary structure requirements for Xenopus nodal-related 3 and a comparison with regions required by Xenopus nodal-related 2. Ezal, C.H., Marion, C.D., Smith, W.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Homeogenetic neural induction in Xenopus. Servetnick, M., Grainger, R.M. Dev. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Induction of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in Xenopus embryos. Jacobson, M., Rutishauser, U. Dev. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Two neural-cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-encoding genes in Xenopus laevis are expressed during development and in adult tissues. Tonissen, K.F., Krieg, P.A. Gene (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular cloning of ssd-form neural cell adhesion molecules (N-CAMs) as the major form in Xenopus heart. Kudo, M., Takayama, E., Tadakuma, T., Shiokawa, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Fate of the anterior neural ridge and the morphogenesis of the Xenopus forebrain. Eagleson, G., Ferreiro, B., Harris, W.A. J. Neurobiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of ectodermal differentiation in Xenopus laevis animal caps treated with TPA and ammonium chloride. Sotgia, C., Fascio, U., Pennati, R., De Bernardi, F. Dev. Growth Differ. (1998) [Pubmed]
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