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Gene Review

ftz-f1  -  ftz transcription factor 1

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: BFTZ-F1, CG13378, CG4059, DEP1, DmFTZ-F1, ...
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Disease relevance of ftz-f1

  • Interactions between TcTex-1 and a diverse set of proteins such as the dynein intermediate chain, Fyn, DOC2, FIP1, the poliovirus receptor, CD155, and the rhodopsin cytoplasmic tail have been reported; yet, despite the broad range of targets, a consensus binding sequence remains uncertain [1].

High impact information on ftz-f1

  • In addition, we show that DHR4 plays a central role in the genetic cascades triggered by the steroid hormone ecdysone at the onset of metamorphosis, acting as both a repressor of the early ecdysone-induced regulatory genes and an inducer of the betaFTZ-F1 midprepupal competence factor [2].
  • These findings indicate that beta FTZ-F1 plays a central role in the prepupal genetic response to ecdysone and provide a molecular mechanism for stage-specific responses to steroid hormones [3].
  • The nuclear hormone receptor Ftz-F1 is a cofactor for the Drosophila homeodomain protein Ftz [4].
  • Here we show that the orphan nuclear receptor alphaFtz-F1 (ref. 3), which is deposited in the egg during oogenesis, is an obligatory cofactor for Ftz [5].
  • The predicted amino acid sequence of FTZ-F1 revealed that the protein is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily [6].

Biological context of ftz-f1

  • Failure of salivary gland histolysis, one of the phenotypes of the ftz-f1 mutant, is rescued by forced expression of the ftz-f1 downstream gene BR-C during the late prepupal period [7].
  • Three of the enhancers proved to be alleles of the known ftz protein cofactor gene ftz-f1, demonstrating the efficacy of the screen [8].
  • On the other hand, premature expression of betaFTZ-F1 in wild-type larvae at mid-first instar or mid-second instar stages causes defects in the molting process [7].
  • Temporally restricted expression of transcription factor betaFTZ-F1: significance for embryogenesis, molting and metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster [7].
  • The effects of ectopic expression of four FTZ proteins, FTZ(1-413) (full length wild-type FTZ), FTZ(delta257-316) (a complete deletion of the HD), FTZ(delta101-150) (a deletion that includes the major FTZ-F1 binding site) and FTZ(delta151-209) were determined [9].

Anatomical context of ftz-f1

  • LacZ expression levels were dramatically reduced in the head and thorax regions but not affected in the abdominal region, suggesting that betaFTZ-F1 is required for high-level Edg78E expression specifically in the head and thorax regions [10].
  • Although the cDNA clone was isolated from the eyestalk library, the shrimp FTZ-F1 appeared to express most abundantly in the mature oocytes [11].
  • Interestingly, shrimp FTZ-F1 can also be found in testis of the male shrimp [11].
  • FTZ-F1alpha is expressed in the developing gonad of frogs [12].
  • FTZ-F1 is a member of the orphan nuclear receptors, which belongs to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily, and plays a role in the blastoderm and nervous system development in Drosophila [13].

Associations of ftz-f1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of ftz-f1

  • Three DHR3 binding sites were identified downstream from the start site of betaFTZ-F1 transcription, further indicating that this gene is a direct target of DHR3 regulation [18].

Regulatory relationships of ftz-f1


Other interactions of ftz-f1

  • These data suggest that FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta likely coregulate common target genes by competition for binding to a 9-bp recognition element [20].
  • We demonstrate that recombinant FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta proteins produce similar in vitro DNase I footprint patterns on a 14-nucleotide region of the zebra element and bind to this site with similar affinities and sequence specificities [20].
  • Together, these observations indicate that betaFTZ-F1 regulates the timing of hormone-induced cell responses, while E93 functions to specify programmed cell death [21].
  • At the onset of metamorphosis, both the cuticle gene Edg78E and the transcription factor betaFTZ-F1 are expressed during the mid- to late prepupal period after a large ecdysteroid pulse [10].
  • DHR3 thus appears to function as a switch that defines the larval-prepupal transition by arresting the early regulatory response to ecdysone at puparium formation and facilitating the induction of the betaFTZ-F1 competence factor in mid-prepupae [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ftz-f1


  1. Crystal structure of dynein light chain TcTex-1. Williams, J.C., Xie, H., Hendrickson, W.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The ecdysone-induced DHR4 orphan nuclear receptor coordinates growth and maturation in Drosophila. King-Jones, K., Charles, J.P., Lam, G., Thummel, C.S. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. A molecular mechanism for the stage specificity of the Drosophila prepupal genetic response to ecdysone. Woodard, C.T., Baehrecke, E.H., Thummel, C.S. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. The nuclear hormone receptor Ftz-F1 is a cofactor for the Drosophila homeodomain protein Ftz. Yu, Y., Li, W., Su, K., Yussa, M., Han, W., Perrimon, N., Pick, L. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. The nuclear receptor homologue Ftz-F1 and the homeodomain protein Ftz are mutually dependent cofactors. Guichet, A., Copeland, J.W., Erdélyi, M., Hlousek, D., Závorszky, P., Ho, J., Brown, S., Percival-Smith, A., Krause, H.M., Ephrussi, A. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. FTZ-F1, a steroid hormone receptor-like protein implicated in the activation of fushi tarazu. Lavorgna, G., Ueda, H., Clos, J., Wu, C. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Temporally restricted expression of transcription factor betaFTZ-F1: significance for embryogenesis, molting and metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Yamada, M., Murata, T., Hirose, S., Lavorgna, G., Suzuki, E., Ueda, H. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. A screen for genes that interact with the Drosophila pair-rule segmentation gene fushi tarazu. Kankel, M.W., Duncan, D.M., Duncan, I. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Low-level ectopic expression of Fushi tarazu in Drosophila melanogaster results in ftz(Ual/Rpl)-like phenotypes and rescues ftz phenotypes. Argiropoulos, B., Ho, J., Blachuta, B.J., Tayyab, I., Percival-Smith, A. Mech. Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. BetaFTZ-F1 dependent and independent activation of Edg78E, a pupal cuticle gene, during the early metamorphic period in Drosophila melanogaster. Kawasaki, H., Hirose, S., Ueda, H. Dev. Growth Differ. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of the shrimp eyestalk cDNA encoding a novel fushi tarazu-factor 1 (FTZ-F1). Chan, S.M., Chan, K.M. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. FTZ-F1alpha is expressed in the developing gonad of frogs. Takase, M., Nakajima, T., Nakamura, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular cloning of chicken FTZ-F1-related orphan receptors. Kudo, T., Sutou, S. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. rigor mortis encodes a novel nuclear receptor interacting protein required for ecdysone signaling during Drosophila larval development. Gates, J., Lam, G., Ortiz, J.A., Losson, R., Thummel, C.S. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. A novel DNA-binding motif abuts the zinc finger domain of insect nuclear hormone receptor FTZ-F1 and mouse embryonal long terminal repeat-binding protein. Ueda, H., Sun, G.C., Murata, T., Hirose, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. The Competence Factor {beta}Ftz-F1 Potentiates Ecdysone Receptor Activity via Recruiting a p160/SRC Coactivator. Zhu, J., Chen, L., Sun, G., Raikhel, A.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Functional conservation of interactions between a homeodomain cofactor and a mammalian FTZ-F1 homologue. Steffensen, K.R., Holter, E., Båvner, A., Nilsson, M., Pelto-Huikko, M., Tomarev, S., Treuter, E. EMBO Rep. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Coordination of larval and prepupal gene expression by the DHR3 orphan receptor during Drosophila metamorphosis. Lam, G.T., Jiang, C., Thummel, C.S. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Insights into the molecular basis of the hormonal control of molting and metamorphosis from Manduca sexta and Drosophila melanogaster. Riddiford, L.M., Hiruma, K., Zhou, X., Nelson, C.A. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. The Drosophila nuclear receptors FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta compete as monomers for binding to a site in the fushi tarazu gene. Ohno, C.K., Ueda, H., Petkovich, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Genetic mechanism for the stage- and tissue-specific regulation of steroid triggered programmed cell death in Drosophila. Lee, C.Y., Simon, C.R., Woodard, C.T., Baehrecke, E.H. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of FTZ-F1alpha in transgenic Xenopus embryos and oocytes. Asahi, H., Takase, M., Yuge, M., Matsui, K., Mori, M., Fujita, T., Nakamura, M. Dev. Growth Differ. (2002) [Pubmed]
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