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Gene Review

M195  -  membrane external protein 195kDa

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of M195


High impact information on M195


Chemical compound and disease context of M195


Biological context of M195


Anatomical context of M195

  • Passive immunotherapy using murine anti-CD13 (F23) or anti-CD33 (M195) mAbs was able to eliminate completely the HL-60 cells in the mice, as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, colony formation assay, and culture of mouse blood and tissue cells in vitro [8].
  • The rapid, specific, and quantitative delivery to the bone marrow and the efficient internalization of M195 into target cells in vivo also suggest that the delivery of other isotopes such as auger or alpha emitters, toxins, or other biologically important molecules into either leukemia cells or normal hematopoietic progenitor cells may be feasible [6].
  • L and H chain cDNAs of M195, a murine mAb that binds to the CD33 Ag on normal and leukemic myeloid cells, were cloned [9].
  • Specificity of binding of mAb M195 was determined by protein-A red blood cell rosetting assays, immunoabsorption, radioimmunoassays with iodine-125 labeled M195 IgG and F(Ab)'2, and complement cytotoxicity with live human cells and cell lines representing a broad range of lineages and tissues [10].
  • A leukemia-selective immunotoxin was constructed by linking recombinant gelonin (rGel), a single chain ribosome inhibitory protein, to recombinant humanized M195 antibody (HuM195), which recognizes the cell-surface protein designated CD33 [11].

Associations of M195 with chemical compounds

  • M195 was trace-labeled with iodine-131 (131I) to allow detailed pharmacokinetic and dosimetric studies by serial sampling of blood and bone marrow and whole-body gamma-camera imaging [6].
  • Sequential targeted therapy for relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic acid and anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody M195 [12].
  • Re-introducing the glycosylation site in the humanized antibody reduces its binding affinity to that of the murine antibody, while removing the glycosylation site from the murine M195 variable domain increases its affinity [13].

Physical interactions of M195

  • Cross-blocking of M195 binding by MY9 and L4F3 (CD33) was demonstrated [3].

Other interactions of M195

  • Three different radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies have been evaluated in Phase I/II studies--131I-labeled anti-CD33 (p67) antibody, 213Bi-labeled humanized M195 antibody, and 131I-anti-CD45 antibody [14].
  • In mutant M195, O-glycosylation of hIGF-1, but not of yeast proteins chitinase and a-agglutinin, was reduced; in mutant M577 yeast proteins were affected besides hIGF-1 [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of M195

  • Naked antibodies are limited in their ability to kill tumor cells, although studies to date suggest there may be a role in antileukemic therapy for unlabeled anti-CD33 humanized M195 antibody after the tumor burden has been reduced by chemotherapy [14].
  • Absorption of M195 onto targets in vivo was demonstrated by biopsy, pharmacology, flow cytometry, and imaging; saturation of available sites occurred at doses greater than or equal to 5 mg/m2 [6].
  • Treatment with native HuM195, a humanized version of murine M195, eliminated minimal residual disease detectable by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 50% of patients [16].
  • In this paper, we describe the use of radio-labeled M195, a murine IgG2a, anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody, that can be used to effectively cytoreduce AML cells in relapsed patients when tumor burden is high; or to eliminate minimal residual disease and lengthen disease-free survival in patients with APL in remission [17].


  1. Engineered humanized dimeric forms of IgG are more effective antibodies. Caron, P.C., Laird, W., Co, M.S., Avdalovic, N.M., Queen, C., Scheinberg, D.A. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. A phase 1B trial of humanized monoclonal antibody M195 (anti-CD33) in myeloid leukemia: specific targeting without immunogenicity. Caron, P.C., Jurcic, J.G., Scott, A.M., Finn, R.D., Divgi, C.R., Graham, M.C., Jureidini, I.M., Sgouros, G., Tyson, D., Old, L.J. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Monoclonal antibody M195: a diagnostic marker for acute myelogenous leukemia. Scheinberg, D.A., Tanimoto, M., McKenzie, S., Strife, A., Old, L.J., Clarkson, B.D. Leukemia (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Dose-escalation trial of M195 labeled with iodine 131 for cytoreduction and marrow ablation in relapsed or refractory myeloid leukemias. Schwartz, M.A., Lovett, D.R., Redner, A., Finn, R.D., Graham, M.C., Divgi, C.R., Dantis, L., Gee, T.S., Andreeff, M., Old, L.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Biological and immunological features of humanized M195 (anti-CD33) monoclonal antibodies. Caron, P.C., Co, M.S., Bull, M.K., Avdalovic, N.M., Queen, C., Scheinberg, D.A. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. A phase I trial of monoclonal antibody M195 in acute myelogenous leukemia: specific bone marrow targeting and internalization of radionuclide. Scheinberg, D.A., Lovett, D., Divgi, C.R., Graham, M.C., Berman, E., Pentlow, K., Feirt, N., Finn, R.D., Clarkson, B.D., Gee, T.S. J. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Modeling and dosimetry of monoclonal antibody M195 (anti-CD33) in acute myelogenous leukemia. Sgouros, G., Graham, M.C., Divgi, C.R., Larson, S.M., Scheinberg, D.A. J. Nucl. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Elimination of human leukemia by monoclonal antibodies in an athymic nude mouse leukemia model. Xu, Y., Scheinberg, D.A. Clin. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Chimeric and humanized antibodies with specificity for the CD33 antigen. Co, M.S., Avdalovic, N.M., Caron, P.C., Avdalovic, M.V., Scheinberg, D.A., Queen, C. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Restricted expression of an early myeloid and monocytic cell surface antigen defined by monoclonal antibody M195. Tanimoto, M., Scheinberg, D.A., Cordon-Cardo, C., Huie, D., Clarkson, B.D., Old, L.J. Leukemia (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Antileukemic activity of recombinant humanized M195-gelonin immunotoxin in nude mice. Xu, Y., Xu, Q., Rosenblum, M.G., Scheinberg, D.A. Leukemia (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequential targeted therapy for relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic acid and anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody M195. Jurcic, J.G., Caron, P.C., Miller, W.H., Yao, T.J., Maslak, P., Finn, R.D., Larson, S.M., Warrell, R.P., Scheinberg, D.A. Leukemia (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Genetically engineered deglycosylation of the variable domain increases the affinity of an anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody. Co, M.S., Scheinberg, D.A., Avdalovic, N.M., McGraw, K., Vasquez, M., Caron, P.C., Queen, C. Mol. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Immunotherapy in acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Matthews, D.C. Leukemia (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Defective threonine-linked glycosylation of human insulin-like growth factor in mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Finck, M., Bergmann, N., Jansson, B., Ernst, J.F. Glycobiology (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Antibody therapy for residual disease in acute myelogenous leukemia. Jurcic, J.G. Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody M195 for the therapy of myeloid leukemia. Caron, P.C., Scheinberg, D.A. Leuk. Lymphoma (1993) [Pubmed]
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