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Gene Review

Gld  -  Glucose dehydrogenase

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG1152, Dmel\CG1152, GDH, GLD, Go, ...
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Disease relevance of Gld


High impact information on Gld

  • We have isolated the Gld gene and three other functionally related genes in the eclosion gene cluster by the method of chromosome walking [4].
  • Isolation of the eclosion gene cluster and the developmental expression of the Gld gene in Drosophila melanogaster [4].
  • The temporal and spatial expression of this RNA is correlated with the expression of the GLD enzyme and levels of the steroid hormone ecdysterone [4].
  • A conserved palindromic sequence (Gpal) in the promoter region of the Drosophila Gld directs expression of a heterologous reporter gene in transgenic flies to the anterior spiracular glands of third instar larvae and to the ejaculatory bulb of adult males [5].
  • A gene fusion composed of the D. melanogaster Gld promoter and the lacZ gene is expressed in the anterior spiracular glands of transgenic larvae [5].

Biological context of Gld

  • We report herein that interactions among proximal promoter elements and a cluster of intronically located enhancers and silencers specify the complex regulation of Gld that underlies its diverse functions [6].
  • We have precisely mapped and sequenced the three 5' exons of the Drosophila melanogaster Gld gene and have identified the start sites for transcription and translation [7].
  • Regulation of Gld in the reproductive organs is particularly complex, involving interactions among the Gpal proximal promoter elements, a unique TATA box, three distinct enhancer types, and one or more silencer elements [6].
  • Molecular structure and transformation of the glucose dehydrogenase gene in Drosophila melanogaster [7].
  • To initially define the contribution of cis- versus trans-acting factors responsible for differences in adult GLD expression between two of these species--D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura--we transferred the D. pseudoobscura Gld to the genome of D. melanogaster and investigated its expression [8].

Anatomical context of Gld


Associations of Gld with chemical compounds

  • Premature exposure of wild type mid-third instar larvae to ecdysterone also results in the rapid accumulation of Gld mRNA and signals the repression of Adh mRNA [11].
  • In particular, we identified striking changes in gene number or genomic organization for genes encoding glycolytic enzymes, cellulase, glucose oxidase and glucose dehydrogenases, glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases, fucosyltransferases, and lysozymes [12].

Other interactions of Gld

  • In mutant l(3)ecdysone-1ts (ecd-1) larvae, the normal peak of Gld mRNA late in the third instar is not expressed [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gld

  • Sequence analysis of the Gld YYRR box in three Drosophila species revealed a high degree of conservation despite its intronic location [13].
  • This increase could be attributed in part to an increase in the alpha subunit of the Go-like protein, as revealed by immunoblotting with anti-Go alpha polyclonal antibody [14].
  • This substrate, which showed only one isoform when analysed by isoelectric focusing, was recognized by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation techniques using a polyclonal antibody against the alpha subunit of the Go protein purified from bovine brain and can be thus considered as a Go-like protein [14].
  • The results of interspecific genital imaginal disc transplantation experiments indicate that the expanded morphology and GLD expression do not require any species- or sex-specific diffusible factors [15].


  1. GMC oxidoreductases. A newly defined family of homologous proteins with diverse catalytic activities. Cavener, D.R. J. Mol. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Extended superfamily of short alcohol-polyol-sugar dehydrogenases: structural similarities between glucose and ribitol dehydrogenases. Jörnvall, H., von Bahr-Lindström, H., Jany, K.D., Ulmer, W., Fröschle, M. FEBS Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Octopamine-sensitive adenylyl cyclase and G proteins in Ceratitis capitata brain during aging. Pérez-Baun, J.C., Galve, I., Ruiz-Verdú, A., Haro, A., Guillén, A. Neuropharmacology (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation of the eclosion gene cluster and the developmental expression of the Gld gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Cavener, D., Corbett, G., Cox, D., Whetten, R. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. An evolutionarily conserved palindrome in the Drosophila Gld promoter directs tissue-specific expression. Gunaratne, P., Ross, J.L., Zhang, Q., Organ, E.L., Cavener, D.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Complex organization of promoter and enhancer elements regulate the tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression of the Drosophila melanogaster Gld gene. Keplinger, B.L., Guo, X., Quine, J., Feng, Y., Cavener, D.R. Genetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular structure and transformation of the glucose dehydrogenase gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Whetten, R., Organ, E., Krasney, P., Cox-Foster, D., Cavener, D. Genetics (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Evolution of the expression of the Gld gene in the reproductive tract of Drosophila. Schiff, N.M., Feng, Y., Quine, J.A., Krasney, P.A., Cavener, D.R. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. A somatic reproductive organ enhancer complex activates expression in both the developing and the mature Drosophila reproductive tract. Keplinger, B.L., Rabetoy, A.L., Cavener, D.R. Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Developmental expression of the glucose dehydrogenase gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Cox-Foster, D.L., Schonbaum, C.P., Murtha, M.T., Cavener, D.R. Genetics (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Ecdysteroid regulation of glucose dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Murtha, M.T., Cavener, D.R. Dev. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Carbohydrate metabolism genes and pathways in insects: insights from the honey bee genome. Kunieda, T., Fujiyuki, T., Kucharski, R., Foret, S., Ament, S.A., Toth, A.L., Ohashi, K., Takeuchi, H., Kamikouchi, A., Kage, E., Morioka, M., Beye, M., Kubo, T., Robinson, G.E., Maleszka, R. Insect Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. The YYRR box: a conserved dipyrimidine-dipurine sequence element in Drosophila and other eukaryotes. Cavener, D., Feng, Y., Foster, B., Krasney, P., Murtha, M., Schonbaum, C., Xiao, X. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. A Go-like protein in Drosophila melanogaster and its expression in memory mutants. Guillén, A., Jallon, J.M., Fehrentz, J.A., Pantaloni, C., Bockaert, J., Homburger, V. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Coevolution of the glucose dehydrogenase gene and the ejaculatory duct in the genus Drosophila. Cavener, D.R. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1985) [Pubmed]
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