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Gene Review

neur  -  neuralized

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 0328/12, 0971/15, 1293/09, 1315/05, BEST:LD21494, ...
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Disease relevance of neur


High impact information on neur

  • Here, we describe a Numb- and Neuralized-independent mechanism that acts redundantly in cell-fate specification [2].
  • Delta, mastermind, bigbrain, and neuralized appear to function in elaboration of a signal upstream of Notch [3].
  • The Drosophila neuralized gene encodes a C3HC4 zinc finger [4].
  • Other tissues that express neuralized include the embryonic mesoderm and specific follicle cells in the ovary [5].
  • Neur is required in a cell-autonomous fashion to restrict R8 and other photoreceptor fates and is involved in lateral inhibition of interommatidial bristles but is not required for induction of the cone cell fate [6].

Biological context of neur


Anatomical context of neur

  • Here, we show that Neu is required at the plasma membrane for functional activity and that its RING finger domain acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase [11].
  • In this model, Sna cell-autonomously represses sim expression in the mesoderm and relieves Su(H)-dependent repression in a cell non-autonomous fashion by promoting the Neur-dependent endocytosis of Delta in the mesoderm [12].
  • In addition, female Neuralized null animals are defective in the final stages of mammary gland maturation during pregnancy [1].
  • Male Neuralized null mice, however, are sterile due to a defect in axoneme organization in the spermatozoa that leads to highly compromised tail movement and sperm immotility [1].
  • The development of the endoderm (midgut rudiments) is disrupted in most of the neurogenic mutations (Notch, Delta, Enhancer of split and neuralized) during at least two stages [13].

Associations of neur with chemical compounds

  • Substitution of valine by glutamic acid in the transmembrane domain, in a position analogous to the oncogenic mutation in the rat neu gene, elevated the in vivo kinase activity of DER in Drosophila Schneider cells sevenfold [14].
  • It has been observed that in female CBA, SHR, SAM and transgenic HER-2/neu mice long-term administration of melatonin was followed by an increase in the mean life span [15].
  • We show that interactions between phosphoinositides and Neuralized contribute to the membrane localization of Neuralized in the absence of Delta, and that the phosphoinositide-binding motif is required for Neuralized to endocytose Delta downstream of Delta ubiquitination [16].

Other interactions of neur

  • Interestingly, the Neur-mediated endocytosis of Delta has recently been shown to be sufficient for the non-autonomous activation of Notch target genes in wing imaginal discs [12].
  • We propose that inhibition of Neur by Brd proteins is important for precise spatial regulation of Dl signaling [17].
  • We conclude that D-mib and Neur are two structurally distinct proteins that have similar molecular activities but distinct developmental functions in Drosophila [18].
  • Neuralized functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase during Drosophila development [11].
  • The roles of cis-inactivation by Notch ligands and of neuralized during eye and bristle patterning in Drosophila [19].


  1. Isolation of a murine homologue of the Drosophila neuralized gene, a gene required for axonemal integrity in spermatozoa and terminal maturation of the mammary gland. Vollrath, B., Pudney, J., Asa, S., Leder, P., Fitzgerald, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Asymmetric Rab 11 endosomes regulate delta recycling and specify cell fate in the Drosophila nervous system. Emery, G., Hutterer, A., Berdnik, D., Mayer, B., Wirtz-Peitz, F., Gaitan, M.G., Knoblich, J.A. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Antineurogenic phenotypes induced by truncated Notch proteins indicate a role in signal transduction and may point to a novel function for Notch in nuclei. Lieber, T., Kidd, S., Alcamo, E., Corbin, V., Young, M.W. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. The Drosophila neuralized gene encodes a C3HC4 zinc finger. Price, B.D., Chang, Z., Smith, R., Bockheim, S., Laughon, A. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. The Drosophila neurogenic gene neuralized encodes a novel protein and is expressed in precursors of larval and adult neurons. Boulianne, G.L., de la Concha, A., Campos-Ortega, J.A., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Neuralized is essential for a subset of Notch pathway-dependent cell fate decisions during Drosophila eye development. Lai, E.C., Rubin, G.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Distinct roles for Mind bomb, Neuralized and Epsin in mediating DSL endocytosis and signaling in Drosophila. Wang, W., Struhl, G. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Neurogenic genes control gene expression at the transcriptional level in early neurogenesis and in mesectoderm specification. Martín-Bermudo, M.D., Carmena, A., Jiménez, F. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Lethal giant larvae controls the localization of notch-signaling regulators numb, neuralized, and Sanpodo in Drosophila sensory-organ precursor cells. Langevin, J., Le Borgne, R., Rosenfeld, F., Gho, M., Schweisguth, F., Bellaïche, Y. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Unequal segregation of Neuralized biases Notch activation during asymmetric cell division. Le Borgne, R., Schweisguth, F. Dev. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Neuralized functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase during Drosophila development. Yeh, E., Dermer, M., Commisso, C., Zhou, L., McGlade, C.J., Boulianne, G.L. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Snail is required for Delta endocytosis and Notch-dependent activation of single-minded expression. Morel, V., Le Borgne, R., Schweisguth, F. Dev. Genes Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The function of the neurogenic genes during epithelial development in the Drosophila embryo. Hartenstein, A.Y., Rugendorff, A., Tepass, U., Hartenstein, V. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Enhancement of tyrosine kinase activity of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor homolog by alterations of the transmembrane domain. Wides, R.J., Zak, N.B., Shilo, B.Z. Eur. J. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Melatonin as antioxidant, geroprotector and anticarcinogen. Anisimov, V.N., Popovich, I.G., Zabezhinski, M.A., Anisimov, S.V., Vesnushkin, G.M., Vinogradova, I.A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Neuralized contains a phosphoinositide-binding motif required downstream of ubiquitination for delta endocytosis and notch signaling. Skwarek, L.C., Garroni, M.K., Commisso, C., Boulianne, G.L. Dev. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Bearded family members inhibit Neuralized-mediated endocytosis and signaling activity of Delta in Drosophila. Bardin, A.J., Schweisguth, F. Dev. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Two distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases have complementary functions in the regulation of delta and serrate signaling in Drosophila. Le Borgne, R., Remaud, S., Hamel, S., Schweisguth, F. PLoS Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. The roles of cis-inactivation by Notch ligands and of neuralized during eye and bristle patterning in Drosophila. Li, Y., Baker, N.E. BMC Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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