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Gene Review

MLF1  -  myeloid leukemia factor 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Myelodysplasia-myeloid leukemia factor 1, Myeloid leukemia factor 1
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Disease relevance of MLF1

  • These observations, together with previous data demonstrating a role for MLF1 in suppressing red cell maturation, suggest a possible role for MLF1IP and MLF1 deregulation in the genesis of erythroleukemias [1].
  • By contrast, the function of the carboxy-terminal fusion partner, myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1), is unknown [2].
  • Anti-MLF1 antibodies detected the wild-type 31 kDa protein in K562 and HEL erythroleukemia cell lines, but not in HL-60, U937 or KG-1 myeloid leukemia lines [3].
  • In addition, in contrast to the other herpesvirus trans-activators previously studied, the EBV BamHI MLF1 gene product appears to function in part by a posttranscriptional mechanism, since it increases pHIV-CAT protein activity more than it increases HIV-CAT mRNA [4].
  • In this report, we demonstrate that an EBV immediate-early gene product, BamHI MLF1, stimulates expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene linked to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter [4].

High impact information on MLF1


Chemical compound and disease context of MLF1


Biological context of MLF1


Anatomical context of MLF1

  • Normal MLF1 transcripts were expressed in a variety of tissues, most abundantly in testis, ovary, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and colon [3].
  • A CD34+ population of normal bone marrow cells preferentially expressed MLF1 with obviously decreasing levels of expression during maturation [11].
  • Therefore, MLF1 normally functions in multi-potent progenitor cells and its dysregulation may take part in leukemogenesis from MDS [11].
  • Ectopic expression of Madm in M1 myeloid cells suppressed cytokine-induced differentiation unlike Mlf1, which promotes maturation [12].
  • Mlf1 tissue distribution was restricted during both development and postnatal life, with high levels present only in skeletal, cardiac, and selected smooth muscle, gonadal tissues, and rare epithelial tissues including the nasal mucosa and the ependyma/choroid plexus in the brain [2].

Associations of MLF1 with chemical compounds

  • High transcriptional activity correlated with distinct transcription units in some cases, i.e. BamHI H1LF1 (DL), BamHI MLF1, BamHI ZLF1/BamHI RLF1 and BamHI X (thymidine kinase), but not in others (BamHI H2) [13].
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of rat F98 and C6 GBM tumor models showed that MLF1IP was highly expressed in the tumor core where it was co-localized with MLF1 and nestin [14].
  • In addition, Madm recruited a serine kinase, which phosphorylated both Madm and Mlf1 including the RSXSXP motif [12].

Physical interactions of MLF1


Other interactions of MLF1

  • In contrast to the tissue-restricted expression pattern of MLF1, the MLF2 messenger RNA is expressed ubiquitously [9].
  • RNA-based polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed identical NPM-MLF1 mRNA fusions in each of the three t(3;5)-positive cases of AML examined [3].
  • The NPM/MLF1-positive cases were predominantly young adult males (median age, 33 years) who responded well to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [15].
  • Myeloid Leukemia Factor 1 Associates with a Novel Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein U-like Molecule [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MLF1

  • To aid in understanding normal MLF1 function, we isolated the murine cDNA, determined the chromosomal localization of Mlf1, and defined its tissue expression by in situ hybridization [2].
  • In the present study, 65 patients with AML and 44 patients with MDS were tested for the expression of MLF1 using the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method [11].
  • Mlf1 was capable of binding DNA, and microarray analysis revealed that it affected the expression of several genes, including transcription factors [8].


  1. cDNA cloning and characterization of a novel gene encoding the MLF1-interacting protein MLF1IP. Hanissian, S.H., Akbar, U., Teng, B., Janjetovic, Z., Hoffmann, A., Hitzler, J.K., Iscove, N., Hamre, K., Du, X., Tong, Y., Mukatira, S., Robertson, J.H., Morris, S.W. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. cDNA cloning, expression pattern, and chromosomal localization of Mlf1, murine homologue of a gene involved in myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia. Hitzler, J.K., Witte, D.P., Jenkins, N.A., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Naeve, C.W., Look, A.T., Morris, S.W. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. The t(3;5)(q25.1;q34) of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia produces a novel fusion gene, NPM-MLF1. Yoneda-Kato, N., Look, A.T., Kirstein, M.N., Valentine, M.B., Raimondi, S.C., Cohen, K.J., Carroll, A.J., Morris, S.W. Oncogene (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. An Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene product trans-activates gene expression from the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat. Kenney, S., Kamine, J., Markovitz, D., Fenrick, R., Pagano, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Myeloid leukemia factor 1 regulates p53 by suppressing COP1 via COP9 signalosome subunit 3. Yoneda-Kato, N., Tomoda, K., Umehara, M., Arata, Y., Kato, J.Y. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. HLS7, a hemopoietic lineage switch gene homologous to the leukemia-inducing gene MLF1. Williams, J.H., Daly, L.N., Ingley, E., Beaumont, J.G., Tilbrook, P.A., Lalonde, J.P., Stillitano, J.P., Klinken, S.P. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Suppression of polyglutamine toxicity by a Drosophila homolog of myeloid leukemia factor 1. Kazemi-Esfarjani, P., Benzer, S. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Myeloid Leukemia Factor 1 Associates with a Novel Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein U-like Molecule. Winteringham, L.N., Endersby, R., Kobelke, S., McCulloch, R.K., Williams, J.H., Stillitano, J., Cornwall, S.M., Ingley, E., Klinken, S.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. cDNA cloning, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor 2 (MLF2). Kuefer, M.U., Look, A.T., Williams, D.C., Valentine, V., Naeve, C.W., Behm, F.G., Mullersman, J.E., Yoneda-Kato, N., Montgomery, K., Kucherlapati, R., Morris, S.W. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Apoptosis induced by the myelodysplastic syndrome-associated NPM-MLF1 chimeric protein. Yoneda-Kato, N., Fukuhara, S., Kato, J. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Elevated MLF1 expression correlates with malignant progression from myelodysplastic syndrome. Matsumoto, N., Yoneda-Kato, N., Iguchi, T., Kishimoto, Y., Kyo, T., Sawada, H., Tatsumi, E., Fukuhara, S. Leukemia (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. MADM, a novel adaptor protein that mediates phosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding site of myeloid leukemia factor 1. Lim, R., Winteringham, L.N., Williams, J.H., McCulloch, R.K., Ingley, E., Tiao, J.Y., Lalonde, J.P., Tsai, S., Tilbrook, P.A., Sun, Y., Wu, X., Morris, S.W., Klinken, S.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Transcriptional activity across the Epstein-Barr virus genome in Raji cells during latency and after induction of an abortive lytic cycle. Kirchner, E.A., Bornkamm, G.W., Polack, A. J. Gen. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of myeloid leukemia factor-1 interacting protein (MLF1IP) expression in glioblastoma. Hanissian, S.H., Teng, B., Akbar, U., Janjetovic, Z., Zhou, Q., Duntsch, C., Robertson, J.H. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Detection of NPM/MLF1 fusion in t(3;5)-positive acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasia. Arber, D.A., Chang, K.L., Lyda, M.H., Bedell, V., Spielberger, R., Slovak, M.L. Hum. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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