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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Genes, Switch

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Disease relevance of Genes, Switch


High impact information on Genes, Switch

  • For Drosophila, the choice between male and female development is made by the switch gene, Sxl, in response to the X:A ratio [5].
  • Epistasis analysis is most consistent with a model in which mab-3 is controlled by tra-1, the last switch gene known to act in the somatic sex determination pathway [6].
  • This suggests that the human fetal-to-adult globin gene switch is controlled through a mutually exclusive interaction between LAR and either the gamma- or beta-globin gene, resulting in the expression of only one gene at any given moment [7].
  • The SK3 gene was targeted by homologous recombination for the insertion of a gene switch that permitted experimental regulation of SK3 expression while retaining normal SK3 promoter function [8].
  • Specific genes termed X-signal elements, which are present on the X chromosome, act in a concerted dose-dependent fashion to regulate levels of the developmental switch gene xol-1 [9].

Biological context of Genes, Switch


Anatomical context of Genes, Switch


Associations of Genes, Switch with chemical compounds


Gene context of Genes, Switch

  • The transcription factor Foxp3 is a master switch gene that controls the development and function of natural and adaptive CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (T(R)) cells [24].
  • During sex determination, the sisterlessA (sisA) gene functions as one of four X:A numerator elements that set the alternative male or female regulatory states of the switch gene Sex-lethal [25].
  • Summary: The her-1 regulatory switch gene in C. elegans sex determination is normally active in XO animals, resulting in male development, and inactive in XX animals, allowing hermaphrodite development [26].
  • Sex-specific regulation of Md-dsx is controlled by the switch gene F via a splicing mechanism that is similar but in some relevant aspects different from that in Drosophila [27].
  • Cyclosporin A inhibits early mRNA expression of G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) in cultured human blood mononuclear cells [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Genes, Switch

  • Using semiquantitative PCR, the differential expression of eight genes was confirmed that included Elk3, an important angiogenic switch gene which was upregulated in the absence of Tie2 signaling [29].


  1. c-myc Gene rearrangements involving gamma immunoglobulin heavy chain gene switch regions in murine plasmacytomas. Harris, L.J., Remmers, E.F., Brodeur, P., Riblet, R., D'Eustachio, P., Marcu, K.B. Nucleic Acids Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Sjögren's syndrome: cytokine and Epstein-Barr viral gene expression within the conjunctival epithelium. Jones, D.T., Monroy, D., Ji, Z., Atherton, S.S., Pflugfelder, S.C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. An extreme clockwise switch bias mutation in fliG of Salmonella typhimurium and its suppression by slow-motile mutations in motA and motB. Togashi, F., Yamaguchi, S., Kihara, M., Aizawa, S.I., Macnab, R.M. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Agrobacterium flagellar switch gene fliG is liquid inducible and important for virulence. Li, L., Jia, Y.H., Pan, S.Q. Can. J. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The primary sex determination signal of Drosophila acts at the level of transcription. Keyes, L.N., Cline, T.W., Schedl, P. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. mab-3, a gene required for sex-specific yolk protein expression and a male-specific lineage in C. elegans. Shen, M.M., Hodgkin, J. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Developmental regulation of human fetal-to-adult globin gene switching in transgenic mice. Enver, T., Raich, N., Ebens, A.J., Papayannopoulou, T., Costantini, F., Stamatoyannopoulos, G. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Respiration and parturition affected by conditional overexpression of the Ca2+-activated K+ channel subunit, SK3. Bond, C.T., Sprengel, R., Bissonnette, J.M., Kaufmann, W.A., Pribnow, D., Neelands, T., Storck, T., Baetscher, M., Jerecic, J., Maylie, J., Knaus, H.G., Seeburg, P.H., Adelman, J.P. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. XOL-1, primary determinant of sexual fate in C. elegans, is a GHMP kinase family member and a structural prototype for a class of developmental regulators. Luz, J.G., Hassig, C.A., Pickle, C., Godzik, A., Meyer, B.J., Wilson, I.A. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Sex-lethal, a Drosophila sex determination switch gene, exhibits sex-specific RNA splicing and sequence similarity to RNA binding proteins. Bell, L.R., Maine, E.M., Schedl, P., Cline, T.W. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. A genetic analysis of the sex-determining gene, tra-1, in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Hodgkin, J. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Krüppel acts as a developmental switch gene that mediates Notch signalling-dependent tip cell differentiation in the excretory organs of Drosophila. Hoch, M., Jäckle, H. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. The enhancer of polycomb gene of Drosophila encodes a chromatin protein conserved in yeast and mammals. Stankunas, K., Berger, J., Ruse, C., Sinclair, D.A., Randazzo, F., Brock, H.W. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. The in vivo role of p38 MAP kinases in cardiac remodeling and restrictive cardiomyopathy. Liao, P., Georgakopoulos, D., Kovacs, A., Zheng, M., Lerner, D., Pu, H., Saffitz, J., Chien, K., Xiao, R.P., Kass, D.A., Wang, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Pharmacogenetic rescue in time and space of the rutabaga memory impairment by using Gene-Switch. Mao, Z., Roman, G., Zong, L., Davis, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Biochemical and molecular characterization of hereditary myeloperoxidase deficiency. Romano, M., Dri, P., Dadalt, L., Patriarca, P., Baralle, F.E. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Induction of female Sex-lethal RNA splicing in male germ cells: implications for Drosophila germline sex determination. Hager, J.H., Cline, T.W. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Efficient recombination of a switch substrate retrovector in CD40-activated B lymphocytes: implications for the control of CH gene switch recombination. Ballantyne, J., Henry, D.L., Muller, J.R., Briere, F., Snapper, C.M., Kehry, M., Marcu, K.B. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. An ethanol inducible gene switch for plants used to manipulate carbon metabolism. Caddick, M.X., Greenland, A.J., Jepson, I., Krause, K.P., Qu, N., Riddell, K.V., Salter, M.G., Schuch, W., Sonnewald, U., Tomsett, A.B. Nat. Biotechnol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. A single point mutation in ecdysone receptor leads to increased ligand specificity: implications for gene switch applications. Kumar, M.B., Fujimoto, T., Potter, D.W., Deng, Q., Palli, S.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Butyrate infusions in the ovine fetus delay the biologic clock for globin gene switching. Perrine, S.P., Rudolph, A., Faller, D.V., Roman, C., Cohen, R.A., Chen, S.J., Kan, Y.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Development of a methoxyfenozide-responsive gene switch for applications in plants. Tavva, V.S., Dinkins, R.D., Palli, S.R., Collins, G.B. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Stringent rosiglitazone-dependent gene switch in muscle cells without effect on myogenic differentiation. Tascou, S., Sorensen, T.K., Glénat, V., Wang, M., Lakich, M.M., Darteil, R., Vigne, E., Thuillier, V. Mol. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Allergic dysregulation and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E in Foxp3 mutant mice. Lin, W., Truong, N., Grossman, W.J., Haribhai, D., Williams, C.B., Wang, J., Martín, M.G., Chatila, T.A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. The Drosophila melanogaster sex determination gene sisA is required in yolk nuclei for midgut formation. Walker, J.J., Lee, K.K., Desai, R.N., Erickson, J.W. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Extragenic suppressors of a dominant masculinizing her-1 mutation in C. elegans identify two new genes that affect sex determination in different ways. Manser, J., Wood, W.B., Perry, M.D. Genesis (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica converges at the level of the terminal regulator doublesex. Hediger, M., Burghardt, G., Siegenthaler, C., Buser, N., Hilfiker-Kleiner, D., Dübendorfer, A., Bopp, D. Dev. Genes Evol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Cyclosporin A inhibits early mRNA expression of G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) in cultured human blood mononuclear cells. Cristillo, A.D., Heximer, S.P., Russell, L., Forsdyke, D.R. DNA Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Gene expression analysis of Tek/Tie2 signaling. Chen, S.H., Babichev, Y., Rodrigues, N., Voskas, D., Ling, L., Nguyen, V.P., Dumont, D.J. Physiol. Genomics (2005) [Pubmed]
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