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Gene Review

LMDEP  -  Loin muscle depth

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of EMD

  • Because EMD 60263 decreased heart rate from 106 +/- 4 to 76 +/- 3 beats per minute (P < .05) in the animals with stunned myocardium, we performed five experiments with the specific negative chronotropic compound zatebradine (UL-FS 49, 0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg) to rule out bradycardia as a factor contributing to the effects of EMD 60263 [1].
  • After stunning (two times 10-min ischemia followed by 30-min reperfusion), measurements were repeated following infusion of saline (n=8) or EMD 60263 (1.5 i.v., n=10) [2].
  • In conclusion, both doses of EMD 60263 improved systolic as well as diastolic function of stunned myocardium [3].

High impact information on EMD

  • After the highest dose of EMD 60263, SLS in the distribution area of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) increased from 13 +/- 1% at baseline to 17 +/- 1% (P < .05) [1].
  • An adrenergic mode of action of EMD 60263 was excluded by blocking the alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors with phentolamine and propranolol, respectively, 15 minutes before administration of EMD 60263 (ie, 15 minutes into the second reperfusion period) in five additional experiments [1].
  • This is in contrast to their relative potencies to inhibit isolated myocardial phosphodiesterase III: EMD 54650 greater than EMD 53998 greater than EMD 54622 [4].
  • Force- and ATPase-pCa relations in skinned fibers show differing potencies of these agents on myofilament sensitization: EMD 54622 greater than EMD 53998 much greater than EMD 54650 [4].
  • We have investigated the effects and the mechanism of action of novel diazinone derivatives, EMD 54622, EMD 53998, and EMD 54650 (developed by E. Merck, Darmstadt), on guinea pig myocardial preparations [4].

Biological context of EMD

  • Effect of bimakalim (EMD 52692), an opener of ATP sensitive potassium channels, on infarct size, coronary blood flow, regional wall function, and oxygen consumption in swine [5].
  • 2. Consecutive intravenous 10 min infusions of EMD 52692 (0.15, 0.30, 0.60, 1.20 micrograms kg-1 min-1; n = 7) dose-dependently decreased mean arterial blood pressure by up to 50% [6].
  • 3. Although cardiac output did not change, EMD 52692 caused a redistribution of blood flow from the arteriovenous anastomoses to the capillary channels [6].
  • Our results suggest that EMD possesses an osteo-promotive effect on bone and medullary regeneration during wound healing of injured long bones [7].
  • Guinea pig ventricular PDE III is selectively inhibited by EMD 53 998 (IC50 = 60 nM) without major effects on other PDE isoenzymes [8].

Anatomical context of EMD

  • EMD 54622 enhanced and EMD 54650 had no effect on myofilament responsiveness to Ca2+ [4].
  • In enzymatically dissociated left ventricular myocytes loaded with the Ca2+ probe indo-1, the positive inotropic effect of EMD 54622 occurred with no change in the amplitude of the cytosolic [Ca2+] (Cai) transient [4].
  • EMD 60264 did not affect systolic shortening but decreased mean rate of half end-diastolic lengthening in normal myocardium to 61+/-8% and in stunned myocardium to 16+/-5% of baseline [3].
  • This finding was consistent with the observed leftward shifts of the pCa2+/Mg(2+)-ATPase curves of isolated myofibrils induced by [+]EMD 60263 [9].
  • EMD 53 998 increases force development of guinea pig papillary muscle in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 3.6 microM, thus being 10 times more potent than pimobendan [8].

Associations of EMD with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, both EMD 53998 and EMD 54650 enhanced Cai transient and twitch contraction amplitudes [4].
  • Chronically instrumented swine with (MI swine; n = 25) or without (normal swine; n = 19) MI were studied at rest and during treadmill exercise (up to 4 km h(-1)), in the absence and presence of the ET(A) antagonist EMD 122946 or the mixed ET(A)/ET(B) antagonist tezosentan [10].
  • To increase the efficacy of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in vascular surgery an experimental study including topical application of the gentamicin derivative EMD 46/217 and fibrin sealant as antibiotic carrier to Dacron prostheses was initiated [11].
  • Our purpose was to test if pinacidil and bimakalim (EMD 52692 or SR 44866), which are ATP-sensitive K+ (K+ATP) channel openers, can attenuate bupivacaine-induced atrioventricular (AV) block [12].
  • Bone volume fraction of newly-formed bone trabeculae on Day 7 postoperatively was significantly higher in the EMD-applied group than in the PGA-applied controls [7].

Other interactions of EMD

  • Boar transition protein 1 and 3 were extracted with acid from the late spermatid nuclei, separated from the TP-degrading proteases by ion-exchange chromatography on Fractogel EMD SO3- 650 (M), and further purified by HPLCs on Diol-120 and on Hitachi #3057, respectively [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of EMD

  • TP2Z was purified by ion-exchange chromatography on Fractogel EMD SO(-)(3) and HPLC on Nucleosil 300 7C18 and on Diol-120 [14].
  • We examined the biological effects of porcine enamel matrix derivative (EMD; Emdogain) on the formation of reparative dentine and dentine bridges in rat molars after pulp amputation [15].


  1. Myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitization predominantly enhances function and mechanical efficiency of stunned myocardium. Soei, L.K., Sassen, L.M., Fan, D.S., van Veen, T., Krams, R., Verdouw, P.D. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Oxygen wastage of stunned myocardium in vivo is due to an increased oxygen cost of contractility and a decreased myofibrillar efficiency. Trines, S.A., Slager, C.J., Onderwater, T.A., Lamers, J.M., Verdouw, P.D., Krams, R. Cardiovasc. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Ca(2+) sensitization and diastolic function of normal and stunned porcine myocardium. Soei, L.K., de Zeeuw, S., Krams, R., Duncker, D.J., Verdouw, P.D. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Novel diazinone derivatives separate myofilament Ca2+ sensitization and phosphodiesterase III inhibitory effects in guinea pig myocardium. Ventura, C., Miller, R., Wolf, H.P., Beier, N., Jonas, R., Klockow, M., Lues, I., Hano, O., Spurgeon, H.A., Lakatta, E.G. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of bimakalim (EMD 52692), an opener of ATP sensitive potassium channels, on infarct size, coronary blood flow, regional wall function, and oxygen consumption in swine. Rohmann, S., Weygandt, H., Schelling, P., Soei, L.K., Becker, K.H., Verdouw, P.D., Lues, I., Häusler, G. Cardiovasc. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Haemodynamic profile of the potassium channel activator EMD 52692 in anaesthetized pigs. Sassen, L.M., Duncker, D.J., Gho, B.C., Diekmann, H.W., Verdouw, P.D. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Porcine enamel matrix derivative enhances trabecular bone regeneration during wound healing of injured rat femur. Kawana, F., Sawae, Y., Sahara, T., Tanaka, S., Debari, K., Shimizu, M., Sasaki, T. Anat. Rec. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. The novel cardiotonic agent EMD 53 998 is a potent "calcium sensitizer". Beier, N., Harting, J., Jonas, R., Klockow, M., Lues, I., Haeusler, G. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C and the responsiveness of Mg(2+)-ATPase to Ca2+ of myofibrils isolated from stunned and non-stunned porcine myocardium. Bezstarosti, K., Soei, L.K., Verdouw, P.D., Lamers, J.M. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Role of endothelin receptor activation in secondary pulmonary hypertension in awake swine after myocardial infarction. Houweling, B., Merkus, D., Sorop, O., Boomsma, F., Duncker, D.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Prevention of graft infection by bonding of gentamycin to Dacron prostheses. Haverich, A., Hirt, S., Karck, M., Siclari, F., Wahlig, H. J. Vasc. Surg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Potassium channel openers attenuate atrioventricular block by bupivacaine in isolated hearts. Boban, M., Stowe, D.F., Gross, G.J., Pieper, G.M., Kampine, J.P., Bosnjak, Z.J. Anesth. Analg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation of intact transition protein 1 and 3 from boar late spermatid nuclei. Akama, K., Kosuge, M., Sato, H., Yamaoka, Y., Nakano, M., Tobita, T. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of a zinc-binding domain of boar spermatidal transition protein 2 in Escherichia coli. Sato, H., Akama, K., Kojima, S., Miura, K., Sekine, A., Nakano, M. Protein Expr. Purif. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Porcine enamel matrix derivative enhances the formation of reparative dentine and dentine bridges during wound healing of amputated rat molars. Igarashi, R., Sahara, T., Shimizu-Ishiura, M., Sasaki, T. Journal of electron microscopy. (2003) [Pubmed]
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