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Chemical Compound Review

Amphojel     aluminum trihydrate

Synonyms: Alumigel, Amphogel, Boehmite, Higilite, Hydrafil, ...
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Disease relevance of Aluminum hydroxide gel

  • Aluminum hydroxide is less effective than calcium carbonate as a phosphate-binding agent for the control of hyperphosphatemia and is associated with aluminum retention in children and young adults with chronic renal failure who are receiving dialysis therapy [1].
  • In all the children with azotemia who were treated with aluminum hydroxide, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.90; P less than 0.01) between the serum aluminum level and the daily dose of elemental aluminum [2].
  • Plasma aluminum levels and the increment in plasma aluminum after infusion of deferoxamine increased from base-line values in the patients treated with aluminum hydroxide, and aluminum-related bone disease developed in one patient [1].
  • Seventeen children and young adults (mean [+/- SD] age, 14.1 +/- 3.7 years) undergoing regular peritoneal dialysis were randomly assigned to treatment with either aluminum hydroxide (n = 7; maximal dose, 30 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) or calcium carbonate (n = 10; dose range, 2.5 to 12 g per day, according to serum phosphorus levels) [1].
  • A 12 amino-acid synthetic peptide (NANP)3 comprising the immunodominant epitope of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein was conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT), adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide, and administered intramuscularly in three doses at monthly intervals to 35 healthy males as a malaria vaccine [3].

High impact information on Aluminum hydroxide gel


Chemical compound and disease context of Aluminum hydroxide gel


Biological context of Aluminum hydroxide gel


Anatomical context of Aluminum hydroxide gel

  • Whereas PGA/RG-I epitopes are detected primarily in cis- and medial Golgi cisternae in cortical cells (Moore, P. J., K. M. M. Swords, M. A. Lynch, and L. A. Staehelin. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 112:589-602), they are localized predominantly in the trans-Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi network in epidermal and peripheral root cap cells [18].
  • Analysis of somatic cell hybrids suggested that the most likely localization of ROM1 is in the approximately 2-cM interval between human PGA (human pepsinogen A) and PYGM (muscle glycogen phosphorylase) [19].
  • Localization of the photoreceptor gene ROM1 to human chromosome 11 and mouse chromosome 19: sublocalization to human 11q13 between PGA and PYGM [19].
  • Induction of hsp70 has been associated recently with the ability of PGA to protect K562 cells from thermal injury, establishing a thermotolerant state; however, the role of hsp70 in thermotolerance is still controversial [20].
  • Rabbits were immunized with dinitrophenyl-coupled Ascaris antigen (DNP-Asc) or ragweed antigen (DNP-Rag) included in aluminum hydroxide gel and their mesenteric lymph node cells were cultured for 24 hr in vitro in the presence of free homologous carrier [21].

Associations of Aluminum hydroxide gel with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Aluminum hydroxide gel

  • Previous studies demonstrate that aluminium hydroxide adjuvant (alum) produces increased Th1 responses in IL-4-deficient mice compared with wild-type animals, although the continued production of IL-5 by spleen cells from these mice also indicates that Th2 responses are induced [26].
  • Biofilm formation is not regulated by csrA, csrB or uvrY in a DeltapgaC mutant, which cannot synthesize PGA [27].
  • The Common vaccine adjuvant aluminum hydroxide up-regulates accessory properties of human monocytes via an interleukin-4-dependent mechanism [28].
  • The MEN1 locus has been localized by family studies to 11q13, flanked by markers PGA and D11S97 [29].
  • TCN1, PGA, and PYGM did not yield any comigrating fragments and could not be physically linked on this PFGE map [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Aluminum hydroxide gel


  1. Aluminum accumulation during treatment with aluminum hydroxide and dialysis in children and young adults with chronic renal disease. Salusky, I.B., Foley, J., Nelson, P., Goodman, W.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Aluminum intoxication from aluminum-containing phosphate binders in children with azotemia not undergoing dialysis. Andreoli, S.P., Bergstein, J.M., Sherrard, D.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Safety and immunogenicity in man of a synthetic peptide malaria vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Herrington, D.A., Clyde, D.F., Losonsky, G., Cortesia, M., Murphy, J.R., Davis, J., Baqar, S., Felix, A.M., Heimer, E.P., Gillessen, D. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Proximal myopathy caused by latrogenic phosphate depletion. Ravid, M., Robson, M. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Enhancing immunogenicity by limiting susceptibility to lysosomal proteolysis. Delamarre, L., Couture, R., Mellman, I., Trombetta, E.S. J. Exp. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Key role of poly-gamma-DL-glutamic acid in immune evasion and virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Kocianova, S., Vuong, C., Yao, Y., Voyich, J.M., Fischer, E.R., DeLeo, F.R., Otto, M. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Peritoneal plasmacytomagenesis in mice: comparison of different pristane dose regimens. Potter, M., Wax, J.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Cimetidine blocks antacid-induced hypergastrinemia. Peterson, W.L., Walsh, J.H., Richardson, C.T. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Zinc tolerance test in uremia. Effect of ferrous sulfate and aluminum hydroxide. Abu-Hamdan, D.K., Mahajan, S.K., Migdal, S.D., Prasad, A.S., McDonald, F.D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Disappearance of vascular calcifications during treatment of renal osteodystrophy. Two patients treated with high doses of vitamin D and aluminum hydroxide. Verberckmoes, R., Bouillon, R., Krempien, B. Ann. Intern. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Prevention of irradiation-induced bowel discomfort by sucralfate: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study when treating localized pelvic cancer. Henriksson, R., Franzén, L., Littbrand, B. Am. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Benzylpenicillin preparations can evoke a systemic anaphylactic reaction in guinea pigs. Muranaka, M., Suzuki, S., Koizumi, K., Igarashi, H., Okumura, H., Takeda, K., Tadokoro, K., Horiuchi, Y. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Use of adjuvant containing mycobacterial cell-wall skeleton, monophosphoryl lipid A, and squalane in malaria circumsporozoite protein vaccine. Rickman, L.S., Gordon, D.M., Wistar, R., Krzych, U., Gross, M., Hollingdale, M.R., Egan, J.E., Chulay, J.D., Hoffman, S.L. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of antacids on gastric emptying. Hurwitz, A., Robinson, R.G., Vats, T.S., Whittier, F.C., Herrin, W.F. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. An economical regimen of human diploid cell strain anti-rabies vaccine for post-exposure prophylaxis. Warrell, M.J., Warrell, D.A., Suntharasamai, P., Viravan, C., Sinhaseni, A., Udomsakdi, D., Phanfung, R., Xueref, C., Vincent-Falquet, J.C., Nicholson, K.G., Bunnag, D., Harinasuta, T. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of serum procollagen III peptide concentrations and PGA index for assessment of hepatic fibrosis. Teare, J.P., Sherman, D., Greenfield, S.M., Simpson, J., Bray, G., Catterall, A.P., Murray-Lyon, I.M., Peters, T.J., Williams, R., Thompson, R.P. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Mucosal protection by sucralfate and its components in acid-exposed rabbit esophagus. Orlando, R.C., Turjman, N.A., Tobey, N.A., Schreiner, V.J., Powell, D.W. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Domain-specific and cell type-specific localization of two types of cell wall matrix polysaccharides in the clover root tip. Lynch, M.A., Staehelin, L.A. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Localization of the photoreceptor gene ROM1 to human chromosome 11 and mouse chromosome 19: sublocalization to human 11q13 between PGA and PYGM. Bascom, R.A., García-Heras, J., Hsieh, C.L., Gerhard, D.S., Jones, C., Francke, U., Willard, H.F., Ledbetter, D.H., McInnes, R.R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Modulation of prostaglandin A1-induced thermotolerance by quercetin in human leukemic cells: role of heat shock protein 70. Elia, G., Amici, C., Rossi, A., Santoro, M.G. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Immunologic and physicochemical properties of enhancing soluble factors for IgG and IgE antibody responses. Kishmoto, T., Ishizaka, K. J. Immunol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients receiving antacid, ranitidine, or sucralfate as prophylaxis for stress ulcer. A randomized controlled trial. Prod'hom, G., Leuenberger, P., Koerfer, J., Blum, A., Chiolero, R., Schaller, M.D., Perret, C., Spinnler, O., Blondel, J., Siegrist, H., Saghafi, L., Blanc, D., Francioli, P. Ann. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Interaction of aluminum hydroxide and allopurinol in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Weissman, I., Krivoy, N. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of indomethacin on the vascular abnormalities of Bartter's syndrome. Richards, C.J., Mark, A.L., Van Orden, D.E., Kaloyanides, G.J. Circulation (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Intestinal perfusion of dietary levels of aluminium: association with the mucosa. Powell, J.J., Ainley, C.C., Evans, R., Thompson, R.P. Gut (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Aluminium hydroxide adjuvant initiates strong antigen-specific Th2 responses in the absence of IL-4- or IL-13-mediated signaling. Brewer, J.M., Conacher, M., Hunter, C.A., Mohrs, M., Brombacher, F., Alexander, J. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. CsrA post-transcriptionally represses pgaABCD, responsible for synthesis of a biofilm polysaccharide adhesin of Escherichia coli. Wang, X., Dubey, A.K., Suzuki, K., Baker, C.S., Babitzke, P., Romeo, T. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. The Common vaccine adjuvant aluminum hydroxide up-regulates accessory properties of human monocytes via an interleukin-4-dependent mechanism. Ulanova, M., Tarkowski, A., Hahn-Zoric, M., Hanson , L.A. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Mapping eight new polymorphisms in 11q13 in the vicinity of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: identification of a new distal recombinant. Smith, C.M., Wells, S.A., Gerhard, D.S. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) map of twelve loci on chromosome 11q11-q13. Petty, E.M., Arnold, A., Marx, S.J., Bale, A.E. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Human immune response to immunization with a structurally defined polypeptide fragment of streptococcal M protein. Beachey, E.H., Stollerman, G.H., Johnson, R.H., Ofek, I., Bisno, A.L. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  32. Suppression of reaginic antibody formation. I. Induction of hapten-specific tolerance. Lee, W.Y., Sehon, A.H. J. Immunol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  33. An anti-idiotype vaccine elicits a specific response to N-glycolyl sialic acid residues of glycoconjugates in melanoma patients. Alfonso, M., Díaz, A., Hernández, A.M., Pérez, A., Rodríguez, E., Bitton, R., Pérez, R., Vázquez, A.M. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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