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Gene Review

BMX  -  BMX non-receptor tyrosine kinase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene in chromosome X protein, Cytoplasmic tyrosine-protein kinase BMX, ETK, Epithelial and endothelial tyrosine kinase, NTK38, ...
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Disease relevance of BMX

  • Interestingly, chromosome X also contains the closest relative of BMX, the BTK gene, implicated in X-linked agammaglobulinemia [1].
  • The 44 kDa Pim-1 kinase directly interacts with tyrosine kinase Etk/BMX and protects human prostate cancer cells from apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs [2].
  • The injuries sustained are compared to see if the clinical impressions that BMX are more dangerous, and produce more facial injuries, are correct [3].
  • BMX bike injuries differed little from ordinary bike injuries except in the greater proportion of injuries due to stunts and the smaller incidence of head injuries [4].
  • We present a case of 2 brothers who developed urethral strictures believed incident to BMX racing [5].

High impact information on BMX


Biological context of BMX

  • Etk/BMX tyrosine kinase is involved in regulation of various cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, motility, and apoptosis [10].
  • Xenograft tumors of ETK cells in vivo accumulated 2.5-fold more 8-[3H]GCV per gram of tissue and showed greater fluorescence from EGFP than control DU145 cells, demonstrating that the reporter gene functioned in vivo [11].

Anatomical context of BMX


Associations of BMX with chemical compounds

  • Cyclic AMP analogues and [BMX also stimulated the protein secretion in dose-dependent manner [17].
  • The mean alpha ETK value indicated inadequate thiamine supply [16].
  • In addition, 26 follow-up cases treated with methadone for a period of one and two weeks were compared before and after treatment and it was found that ETK AC, EGR AC, and EAST AC were significantly decreased [18].
  • Their activation coefficients of the enzyme transketolase, glutathione oxidoreductase and aspartate aminotransferase (ETK AC, EGR AC and EAST AC respectively) were significantly increased for addicts who were on drugs for a long time which indicated a biochemical deficiency [18].
  • The changes in the ETK (erythrocyte transketolase activity in whole blood) and a-ETK (ETK activity coefficient) during the hospital stay correlated with the cumulative dosage of furosemide adjusted for the duration of the therapy (r = 0.36, p < 0.001 and r = - 0.28, p > 0.03) [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BMX

  • Two such injuries occurring within a short period of time prompted us to suggest that scrotal protection, as well as a crash helmet and limb padding, should be made standard safety equipment for all BMX bicycle riders who engage in the sport of jumping [20].
  • Mean +/- SD, of alpha ETK improved pre-treatment level of 1.174 +/- 0.135 to 1.009 +/- 0.009 after treatment with thiamine [21].
  • As analyzed by flow cytometry, passage of EGFP-TK-DU145 transfected cells (ETK) in vitro resulted in populations of cells with high and low expression of EGFP over time [11].


  1. BMX, a novel nonreceptor tyrosine kinase gene of the BTK/ITK/TEC/TXK family located in chromosome Xp22.2. Tamagnone, L., Lahtinen, I., Mustonen, T., Virtaneva, K., Francis, F., Muscatelli, F., Alitalo, R., Smith, C.I., Larsson, C., Alitalo, K. Oncogene (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. The 44 kDa Pim-1 kinase directly interacts with tyrosine kinase Etk/BMX and protects human prostate cancer cells from apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. Xie, Y., Xu, K., Dai, B., Guo, Z., Jiang, T., Chen, H., Qiu, Y. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models. Worrell, J. Archives of emergency medicine. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Injuries to children riding BMX bikes. Illingworth, C.M. British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Urethral strictures incident to bicycle motocross racing. Delaney, D.P., Carr, M.C. Urology (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of the PH-domain-containing tyrosine kinase Etk by focal adhesion kinase through the FERM domain. Chen, R., Kim, O., Li, M., Xiong, X., Guan, J.L., Kung, H.J., Chen, H., Shimizu, Y., Qiu, Y. Nat. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Neuropeptide-induced androgen independence in prostate cancer cells: roles of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Etk/Bmx, Src, and focal adhesion kinase. Lee, L.F., Guan, J., Qiu, Y., Kung, H.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Tyrosine Kinase Etk/BMX Is Up-regulated in Human Prostate Cancer and Its Overexpression Induces Prostate Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Mouse. Dai, B., Kim, O., Xie, Y., Guo, Z., Xu, K., Wang, B., Kong, X., Melamed, J., Chen, H., Bieberich, C.J., Borowsky, A.D., Kung, H.J., Wei, G., Ostrowski, M.C., Brodie, A., Qiu, Y. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Bi-directional regulation between tyrosine kinase Etk/BMX and tumor suppressor p53 in response to DNA damage. Jiang, T., Guo, Z., Dai, B., Kang, M., Ann, D.K., Kung, H.J., Qiu, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Interaction between tyrosine kinase Etk and a RUN domain- and FYVE domain-containing protein RUFY1. A possible role of ETK in regulation of vesicle trafficking. Yang, J., Kim, O., Wu, J., Qiu, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. In vitro and in vivo characterization of a dual-function green fluorescent protein--HSV1-thymidine kinase reporter gene driven by the human elongation factor 1 alpha promoter. Luker, G.D., Luker, K.E., Sharma, V., Pica, C.M., Dahlheimer, J.L., Ocheskey, J.A., Fahrner, T.J., Milbrandt, J., Piwnica-Worms, D. Molecular imaging : official journal of the Society for Molecular Imaging. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. BMX tyrosine kinase gene is expressed in granulocytes and myeloid leukaemias. Kaukonen, J., Lahtinen, I., Laine, S., Alitalo, K., Palotie, A. Br. J. Haematol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunoglobulin and complement in normal skin. Blenkinsopp, W.K., Clayton, R.J., Haffenden, G.P. J. Clin. Pathol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc in an adolescent BMX bike rider. Gaskell, D.J., Blaiklock, C.T. The British journal of clinical practice. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Mandibular condyle fractures and the BMX bicycle. Adlam, D.M. British dental journal. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. The vitamin status of Viennese school children aged 11-12 years. Marktl, W., Rudas, B., Brubacher, G. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Membrane transduction pathway in the neuronal control of protein secretion by the albumen gland in Helisoma (Mollusca). Saleuddin ASM, n.u.l.l., Mukai, S.T., Almeida, K., Hatiras, G. Acta. Biol. Hung. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. B vitamins status: effect of prolonged heroin addiction and methadone treatment. Prayurahong, B., Migasena, P., Pongpaew, P., Vudhivai, N., Busapathumrong, P. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Diuretic use: a risk for subclinical thiamine deficiency in elderly patients. Suter, P.M., Haller, J., Hany, A., Vetter, W. The journal of nutrition, health & aging. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. BMX handlebar. A threat to manhood? Sparnon, T., Moretti, K., Sach, R.P. Med. J. Aust. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Chlormethiazole and utilization of vitamin B1 in chronic alcoholics. Majumdar, S.K. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1980) [Pubmed]
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