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Gene Review

TKT  -  transketolase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HEL107, TK, TKT1, Transketolase
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Disease relevance of TKT


Psychiatry related information on TKT


High impact information on TKT


Chemical compound and disease context of TKT

  • Variants of the enzyme transketolase which possess reduced affinity for its cofactor thiamine pyrophosphate (high apparent Km) have been described in chronic alcoholic patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome [5].
  • Thiamine defiency is closely involved with two neurological disorders, Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndromes, and in both of these conditions TK with altered activity are found [14].
  • Mass spectra analysis of 13C-labeled carbons revealed that these PC reactions contribute to over 85% of de novo ribose synthesis in RNA from [1,2-(13)C]glucose in cultured Mia pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells, with the fraction synthesized through the TK pathway predominating (85%) [15].
  • Melanoma-bearing animals inoculated with HSV TK-expressing Salmonella showed ganciclovir-mediated, dose-dependent suppression of tumor growth and prolonged survival in addition to that seen with bacteria alone [16].
  • Exploitation of differences in the substrate specificity of the type I and type II thymidine kinases (EC, TK) expressed by the Herpesviridae and Poxviridae (and human cells), respectively, has lead to the development of effective antiherpetic drugs such as acyclovir and gancyclovir [17].

Biological context of TKT


Anatomical context of TKT


Associations of TKT with chemical compounds

  • Recent studies suggest that corneal cells express high levels of so-called corneal crystallins, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and transketolase (TKT) that contribute to maintaining cellular transparency [18].
  • Here, we demonstrate that this protein is transketolase (TKT; EC, an enzyme in the nonoxidative branch of the pentose-phosphate pathway, based on peptide and cDNA isolation and sequence analysis of mouse cornea protein and RNA samples, respectively [21].
  • Transketolase belongs to the family of thiamin diphosphate dependent enzymes [1].
  • The enzyme was finally detached from CM-cellulose by specific elution with a D-xylulose-5-phosphate/D-ribose-5-phosphate mixture and the isolated product exhibited a specific activity of about 10 units/mg protein at 37 degrees C. Transketolase preparations are contamination-free, except for a slight residual activity of phosphohexose isomerase [19].
  • We propose that TKTL1 upregulation is a common phenomenon in GC and cancer of the GEJ leading to an enhanced, oxygen-independent glucose usage which might contribute to a more aggressive tumor growth [2].

Other interactions of TKT


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TKT


  1. Heterologous expression of human transketolase. Schenk, G., Duggleby, R.G., Nixon, P.F. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of the mutated transketolase TKTL1, a molecular marker in gastric cancer. Staiger, W.I., Coy, J.F., Grobholz, R., Hofheinz, R.D., Lukan, N., Post, S., Schwarzbach, M.H., Willeke, F. Oncol. Rep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Upregulation of tyrosine kinase TKT by the Epstein-Barr virus transactivator Zta. Lu, J., Chen, S.Y., Chua, H.H., Liu, Y.S., Huang, Y.T., Chang, Y., Chen, J.Y., Sheen, T.S., Tsai, C.H. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. 42 bp element from LDL receptor gene confers end-product repression by sterols when inserted into viral TK promoter. Südhof, T.C., Russell, D.W., Brown, M.S., Goldstein, J.L. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Cloning of human transketolase cDNAs and comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the coding region in Wernicke-Korsakoff and non-Wernicke-Korsakoff individuals. McCool, B.A., Plonk, S.G., Martin, P.R., Singleton, C.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Transketolase abnormality in tolazamide-induced Wernicke's encephalopathy. Mukherjee, A.B., Ghazanfari, A., Svoronos, S., Staton, R.C., Nakada, T., Kwee, I.L. Neurology (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Studies of transketolase abnormality in Alzheimer's disease. Sheu, K.F., Clarke, D.D., Kim, Y.T., Blass, J.P., Harding, B.J., DeCicco, J. Arch. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. The activation of red blood cell transketolase in groups of patients especially at risk from thiamin deficiency. Jeyasingham, M.D., Pratt, O.E., Burns, A., Shaw, G.K., Thomson, A.D., Marsh, A. Psychological medicine. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Alcoholic cerebellar degeneration is not a dose-dependent phenomenon. Estrin, W.J. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Chemokine signaling and functional responses: the role of receptor dimerization and TK pathway activation. Mellado, M., Rodríguez-Frade, J.M., Mañes, S., Martínez-A, C. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Abnormality of a thiamine-requiring enzyme in patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Blass, J.P., Gibson, G.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. How thiamine diphosphate is activated in enzymes. Kern, D., Kern, G., Neef, H., Tittmann, K., Killenberg-Jabs, M., Wikner, C., Schneider, G., Hübner, G. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Transketolase abnormality in cultured fibroblasts from familial chronic alcoholic men and their male offspring. Mukherjee, A.B., Svoronos, S., Ghazanfari, A., Martin, P.R., Fisher, A., Roecklein, B., Rodbard, D., Staton, R., Behar, D., Berg, C.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular cloning of tissue-specific transcripts of a transketolase-related gene: implications for the evolution of new vertebrate genes. Coy, J.F., Dübel, S., Kioschis, P., Thomas, K., Micklem, G., Delius, H., Poustka, A. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Oxythiamine and dehydroepiandrosterone inhibit the nonoxidative synthesis of ribose and tumor cell proliferation. Boros, L.G., Puigjaner, J., Cascante, M., Lee, W.N., Brandes, J.L., Bassilian, S., Yusuf, F.I., Williams, R.D., Muscarella, P., Melvin, W.S., Schirmer, W.J. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Tumor-targeted Salmonella as a novel anticancer vector. Pawelek, J.M., Low, K.B., Bermudes, D. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. A single amino acid substitution abolishes feedback inhibition of vaccinia virus thymidine kinase. Black, M.E., Hruby, D.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 3A1 expression by the human keratocyte and its repair phenotypes. Pei, Y., Reins, R.Y., McDermott, A.M. Exp. Eye Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Transketolase from human leukocytes. Isolation, properties and induction of polyclonal antibodies. Mocali, A., Paoletti, F. Eur. J. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Elevated expression of tyrosine kinase DDR2 in primary biliary cirrhosis. Mao, T.K., Kimura, Y., Kenny, T.P., Branchi, A., Gishi, R.G., Van de Water, J., Kung, H.J., Friedman, S.L., Gershwin, M.E. Autoimmunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Transketolase is a major protein in the mouse cornea. Sax, C.M., Salamon, C., Kays, W.T., Guo, J., Yu, F.X., Cuthbertson, R.A., Piatigorsky, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Chromosomal location of the human transketolase gene. Lapsys, N.M., Layfield, R., Baker, E., Callen, D.F., Sutherland, G.R., Abedinia, M., Nixon, P.F., Mattick, J.S. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction of the gap-pgk operon encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase of Xanthobacter flavus requires the LysR-type transcriptional activator CbbR. Meijer, W.G., van den Bergh, E.R., Smith, L.M. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. The vitamin B1 status among young Egyptians from the oasis in relation to glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Hussein, L., Arafah, A., Yamamah, G. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. RD114-pseudotyped retroviral vectors kill cancer cells by syncytium formation and enhance the cytotoxic effect of the TK/GCV gene therapy strategy. Germain, E., Roullin, V.G., Qiao, J., de Campos Lima, P.O., Caruso, M. The journal of gene medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Vitamin B(1) status assessed by direct measurement of thiamin pyrophosphate in erythrocytes or whole blood by HPLC: comparison with erythrocyte transketolase activation assay. Talwar, D., Davidson, H., Cooney, J., St JO'Reilly, D. Clin. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Molecular analysis of mutations at the HPRT and TK loci of human lymphoblastoid cells after combined treatments with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and 2',3'-dideoxyinosinedagger. Meng, Q., Su, T., O'Neill, J.P., Walker, V.E. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Protein that binds to the distal, but not to the proximal, CCAAT of the human thymidine kinase gene promoter. Lipson, K.E., Liang, G., Xia, L., Gai, X., Prystowsky, M.B., Mao, X. J. Cell. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
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