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Gene Review

ACTG2  -  actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ACT, ACTA3, ACTE, ACTL3, ACTSG, ...
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High impact information on ACTG2

  • Hybridization with the 3' untranslated region, which is specific for the human smooth muscle gamma-actin gene, suggests the single gene in the human genome and specific expressions in enteric and aortic tissues [1].
  • To elucidate the mechanism(s) of this phenotypic induction, we focused on the molecular regulation of smooth muscle-gamma-actin, whose expression is induced at late stages of smooth muscle differentiation and developmentally restricted to this lineage [2].
  • Smooth muscle-gamma-actin promoter-luciferase reporter activity was enhanced by transforming growth factor-beta, and deletion analysis revealed that CArG box 2 in the promoter was necessary for this transcriptional activation [2].
  • Expression of mNkx3-1 in heterologous CV-1 fibroblasts was unable to elicit SMGA promoter activity but required the coexpression of serum response factor (SRF) to activate robust SMGA transcription [3].
  • These motifs interacted both in the absence of DNA and when both proteins were bound to a SMGA promoter DNA sequence [4].

Biological context of ACTG2


Anatomical context of ACTG2

  • A HindIII DNA polymorphism in the human enteric type smooth muscle actin gene (ACTSG) [10].
  • In the studies presented here, SMGA gene activity and regulation were evaluated in normal and cancerous prostate epithelial cells [5].
  • In the studies reported here, we have further characterized the role of SRF in the regulation of the SMGA gene in the developing gizzard [8].
  • This correspondence of SRF and SMGA expression was also observed in cultured smooth muscle mesenchyme induced to express differentiated gene products in vitro [8].
  • Keratinocyte spreading was decreased by 78.8% (P = .0006), 80.3% (P = .0001), and 89.2% (P = .0001) on thrombin-, batroxobin-, and ACTE-generated fibrin, respectively, but not on fibrinogen-coated dishes [11].

Associations of ACTG2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of ACTG2

  • 1. However, SMGA transcription was influenced by expression of androgen receptor in these cells, a situation that allows the androgen-dependent expression of Nkx 3 [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACTG2

  • We observed an increase in SRF protein and mRNA levels during gizzard development by Western and Northern blot analyses, with a large increase just preceding an increase in SMGA expression [8].


  1. Structure, chromosome location, and expression of the human smooth muscle (enteric type) gamma-actin gene: evolution of six human actin genes. Miwa, T., Manabe, Y., Kurokawa, K., Kamada, S., Kanda, N., Bruns, G., Ueyama, H., Kakunaga, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Transforming growth factor-beta induction of smooth muscle cell phenotpye requires transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of serum response factor. Hirschi, K.K., Lai, L., Belaguli, N.S., Dean, D.A., Schwartz, R.J., Zimmer, W.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. The smooth muscle gamma-actin gene promoter is a molecular target for the mouse bagpipe homologue, mNkx3-1, and serum response factor. Carson, J.A., Fillmore, R.A., Schwartz, R.J., Zimmer, W.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Physical and functional interactions between the prostate suppressor homeoprotein NKX3.1 and serum response factor. Ju, J.H., Maeng, J.S., Zemedkun, M., Ahronovitz, N., Mack, J.W., Ferretti, J.A., Gelmann, E.P., Gruschus, J.M. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. The smooth muscle gamma-actin gene is androgen responsive in prostate epithelia. Filmore, R.A., Dean, D.A., Zimmer, W.E. Gene Expr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Chromosomal mapping of the human smooth muscle actin gene (enteric type, ACTA3) to 2p13.1 and molecular nature of the hindIII polymorphism. Ueyama, H., Inazawa, J., Nishino, H., Han-Xiang, D., Ochiai, Y., Ohkubo, I. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Cell-specific nuclear import of plasmid DNA. Vacik, J., Dean, B.S., Zimmer, W.E., Dean, D.A. Gene Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. The developmentally regulated expression of serum response factor plays a key role in the control of smooth muscle-specific genes. Browning, C.L., Culberson, D.E., Aragon, I.V., Fillmore, R.A., Croissant, J.D., Schwartz, R.J., Zimmer, W.E. Dev. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Smooth muscle gamma-actin promoter regulation by RhoA and serum response factor signaling. Carson, J.A., Culberson, D.E., Thompson, R.W., Fillmore, R.A., Zimmer, W. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. A HindIII DNA polymorphism in the human enteric type smooth muscle actin gene (ACTSG). Ueyama, H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Un-cross-linked fibrin substrates inhibit keratinocyte spreading and replication: correction with fibronectin and factor XIII cross-linking. Weiss, E., Yamaguchi, Y., Falabella, A., Crane, S., Tokuda, Y., Falanga, V. J. Cell. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. A new pencillin with anti-klebsiella activity: 3-(5-tetrazolyl) penam. Bodey, G.P., Weaver, S., Pan, T. J. Antibiot. (1977) [Pubmed]
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