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Gene Review

Act79B  -  Actin 79B

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 143060_f_at, Actin, Actin, larval muscle, Actin-79B, CG7478, ...
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Disease relevance of Act79B

  • ADP-ribosylation of Drosophila indirect-flight-muscle actin and arthrin by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin [1].
  • Here, wild-type (WT) human alpha-cardiac actin and a mutant E99K actin have been expressed and purified from the baculovirus/insect cell expression system [2].
  • Using actin gene-specific probes from both chicken and Dictyostelium sources, a clone--denoted lambda DmA2--containing a Drosophila actin gene has been isolated from a representative library of Drosophila genomic DNA cloned in the lambda bacteriophage vector, Charon 4 [3].
  • For example, dAPC2 has a striking asymmetric distribution in neuroblasts, and dAPC2 colocalizes with assembling actin filaments at the base of developing larval denticles [4].
  • The pattern of accumulation of 79B actin transcripts was determined and compared to the expression of a 79B actin promoter fused to the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase reporter gene [5].

High impact information on Act79B

  • However, DmIKK epsilon-mediated degradation of DIAP1 does not regulate apoptosis as might be predicted but instead regulates actin dynamics, cell morphology, and the differentiation of sensory organ precursor cells [6].
  • The mutation Act88FKM75, a G----A transition in the indirect flight muscle-specific actin gene, also exhibits this phenotype [7].
  • Using genomic blots with actin-specific probes derived from lambda DmA2, we show that there are six actin genes per haploid Drosophilia genome [3].
  • The actin genes of Drosophila: a dispersed multigene family [3].
  • Surprisingly, although DPTEN does not generally affect cell fate determination, it does appear to regulate the subcellular organization of the actin cytoskeleton in multiple cell types [8].

Biological context of Act79B

  • Mutant L176M actin was modified by both toxins, indicating that amino acid 176 of actin does not define the substrate specificity of C. botulinum C2 toxin [1].
  • These data permit comparison of the DNA sequences of these Drosophila actin genes with each other and with the DNA sequence and protein sequence information available for the actins of Drosophila and other organisms [9].
  • The post-translational processing of this actin-by N-terminal processing, methylation and ubiquitination-are described [10].
  • The cDNA encoding the entire RVGP gene was cloned in an expression plasmid under the control of the constitutive actin promoter (Ac), which was co-transfected into S2 cells together with a hygromycin selection plasmid [11].
  • The use of Drosophila mutations in the indirect flight muscle-specific actin gene, Act88F, to study actin structure/function and its assembly into thin filaments during myofibrillogenesis is described [10].

Anatomical context of Act79B

  • Tissue patterning must be translated into morphogenesis through cell shape changes mediated by remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton [12].
  • Actin capping protein {alpha} maintains vestigial-expressing cells within the Drosophila wing disc epithelium [12].
  • We find that planar polarity in the Drosophila embryo is established through a sequential enrichment of actin-myosin cables and adherens junction proteins in complementary surface domains [13].
  • In Drosophila syncytial blastoderm embryos, centrosomes specify the position of actin-based interphase caps and mitotic furrows [14].
  • Sced localization, actin reorganization from caps into mitotic furrows, and centrosome-coordinated assembly of actin caps are not blocked by microtubule disruption [14].

Associations of Act79B with chemical compounds

  • Actin translated in vitro from the indirect-flight-muscle-specific gene Act88F was ADP-ribosylated by C. botulinum C2 toxin and C. perfringens iota toxin [1].
  • Like actin, the ADP-ribose-arthrin linkage was sensitive towards hydroxylamine treatment, indicating arginine as the amino acid acceptor [1].
  • Actin from the R177Q mutant of Act88F translated in vivo was not ADP-ribosylated confirming Arg-177 as the ADP-ribose acceptor [1].
  • The receptor tyrosine phosphatase Dlar and integrins organize actin filaments in the Drosophila follicular epithelium [15].
  • Finally, we find that two integrin alpha subunits encoded by mew and if are required for proper oocyte elongation, implying that multiple components of the ECM are instructive in coordinating actin fiber polarity [15].

Other interactions of Act79B

  • Drosophila genomic DNAs containing a chromosomal locus 87C1 70,000-dalton heat shock protein gene, the locus 79B actin gene, and the 88F actin gene have been used as templates in an in vitro HeLa transcription system [16].
  • We describe a second fly APC, dAPC2, which binds Arm and is expressed in a broad spectrum of tissues. dAPC2's subcellular localization revealed colocalization with actin in many but not all cellular contexts, and also suggested a possible interaction with astral microtubules [4].
  • In addition, Grk protein accumulates in large, actin-caged vesicles near the endoplasmic reticulum of stages 6-10 egg chambers [17].
  • It acts in opposition to Dp110 to control cell number and growth, while coordinately influencing events at the cell periphery via its effects on the actin cytoskeleton [8].
  • Centrosomes and the Scrambled protein coordinate microtubule-independent actin reorganization [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Act79B

  • Similarly, in Drosophila, actin and myosin 2 localization and cell constriction at the margin of the epidermis mediate dorsal closure and are controlled by Misshapen [18].
  • Actin-myosin structures align across multiple cells during rosette formation, and adherens junction proteins assemble in a stepwise fashion during rosette resolution [13].
  • Organization of actin gene sequences in the sea urchin: molecular cloning of an intron-containing DNA sequence coding for a cytoplasmic actin [19].
  • Southern blot hybridization experiments with both the Drosophila actin sequence and one of the cloned sea urchin sequences, in conjunction with solution hybridization data, suggest an actin gene copy number of 5-20 per haploid genome [19].
  • We have examined the cellular basis of leg disc morphogenesis by staining filamentous actin to outline cell boundaries in discs and observing cell shapes with scanning confocal laser microscopy (SCLM) [20].


  1. ADP-ribosylation of Drosophila indirect-flight-muscle actin and arthrin by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. Just, I., Hennessey, E.S., Drummond, D.R., Aktories, K., Sparrow, J.C. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional consequences of a mutation in an expressed human alpha-cardiac actin at a site implicated in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Bookwalter, C.S., Trybus, K.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. The actin genes of Drosophila: a dispersed multigene family. Fyrberg, E.A., Kindle, K.L., Davidson, N., Kindle, K.L. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Drosophila APC2 is a cytoskeletally-associated protein that regulates wingless signaling in the embryonic epidermis. McCartney, B.M., Dierick, H.A., Kirkpatrick, C., Moline, M.M., Baas, A., Peifer, M., Bejsovec, A. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Tissue-specific expression of the 79B actin gene during Drosophila development. Courchesne-Smith, C.L., Tobin, S.L. Dev. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. A kinase gets caspases into shape. Montell, D.J. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Mutations that induce the heat shock response of Drosophila. Parker-Thornburg, J., Bonner, J.J. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Drosophila tumor suppressor PTEN controls cell size and number by antagonizing the Chico/PI3-kinase signaling pathway. Goberdhan, D.C., Paricio, N., Goodman, E.C., Mlodzik, M., Wilson, C. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Two Drosophila actin genes in detail. Gene structure, protein structure and transcription during development. Sanchez, F., Tobin, S.L., Rdest, U., Zulauf, E., McCarthy, B.J. J. Mol. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Drosophila actin mutants and the study of myofibrillar assembly and function. Sparrow, J.C., Drummond, D.R., Hennessey, E.S., Clayton, J.D., Lindegaard, F.B. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Rabies virus glycoprotein expression in Drosophila S2 cells. I. Functional recombinant protein in stable co-transfected cell line. Yokomizo, A.Y., Jorge, S.A., Astray, R.M., Fernandes, I., Ribeiro, O.G., Horton, D.S., Tonso, A., Tordo, N., Pereira, C.A. Biotechnology journal (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Actin capping protein {alpha} maintains vestigial-expressing cells within the Drosophila wing disc epithelium. Janody, F., Treisman, J.E. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Multicellular rosette formation links planar cell polarity to tissue morphogenesis. Blankenship, J.T., Backovic, S.T., Sanny, J.S., Weitz, O., Zallen, J.A. Dev. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Centrosomes and the Scrambled protein coordinate microtubule-independent actin reorganization. Stevenson, V.A., Kramer, J., Kuhn, J., Theurkauf, W.E. Nat. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. The receptor tyrosine phosphatase Dlar and integrins organize actin filaments in the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Bateman, J., Reddy, R.S., Saito, H., Van Vactor, D. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. In vitro transcription of Drosophila actin and 70,000-dalton heat shock protein genes. Nierman, W.C., Miller, A.E., Tobin, S.L., Ingolia, T.D., Sanchez, F., Rdest, U., Zulauf, E., McCarthy, B.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Drosophila rhino encodes a female-specific chromo-domain protein that affects chromosome structure and egg polarity. Volpe, A.M., Horowitz, H., Grafer, C.M., Jackson, S.M., Berg, C.A. Genetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Coordinated cell-shape changes control epithelial movement in zebrafish and Drosophila. Köppen, M., Fernández, B.G., Carvalho, L., Jacinto, A., Heisenberg, C.P. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Organization of actin gene sequences in the sea urchin: molecular cloning of an intron-containing DNA sequence coding for a cytoplasmic actin. Durica, D.S., Schloss, J.A., Crain, W.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Apical cell shape changes during Drosophila imaginal leg disc elongation: a novel morphogenetic mechanism. Condic, M.L., Fristrom, D., Fristrom, J.W. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
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