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Gene Review

PDS3  -  phytoene desaturase 3

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of PDS3


High impact information on PDS3


Biological context of PDS3

  • Assessment of penetrance and expressivity of RNAi-mediated silencing of the Arabidopsis phytoene desaturase gene [5].
  • An inverse correlation between PDS mRNA level and RNAi phenotype was seen [5].
  • We have successfully silenced the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene in the diploid wild species Solanum bulbocastanum and S. okadae, in the cultivated tetraploid S. tuberosum and in the distant hexaploid relative S. nigrum (commonly known as deadly nightshade) [6].
  • PSY needs to be supplemented and the need for the CrtI transgene in Golden Rice is presumably due to insufficient activity of the phytoene desaturase and/or zeta-carotene desaturase enzyme in endosperm [7].
  • With light, there is an up-regulation of PSY expression, the first gene within the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, while PDS and GGPS expression levels remain constant [8].

Anatomical context of PDS3


Associations of PDS3 with chemical compounds

  • Previous analyses of phytoene-accumulating tissue suggested that there may be feedback regulation of PDS gene transcription, with higher expression in white tissue [9].
  • The two-step desaturation of phytoene to zeta-carotene, carried out by the enzyme phytoene desaturase (PDS), is one of the earliest steps in the pathway and has been studied in several systems [9].
  • Seedlings harbouring Thr304 pds had a maximum resistance to sensitivity (R/S) ratio of 57 and 14 times higher than that of the wild-type for treatments with norflurazon and fluridone, respectively [10].
  • Thr, the three natural mutations [Cys, serine (Ser), histidine (His)] and the wild-type PDS protein were tested in vitro against seven inhibitors of PDS representing several classes of herbicides [10].
  • We substituted the arginine 304 present in the wild-type H. verticillata phytoene desaturase (PDS) with all 19 other natural amino acids and tested PDS against fluridone [10].

Other interactions of PDS3


  1. Two Arabidopsis thaliana carotene desaturases, phytoene desaturase and zeta-carotene desaturase, expressed in Escherichia coli, catalyze a poly-cis pathway to yield pro-lycopene. Bartley, G.E., Scolnik, P.A., Beyer, P. Eur. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Spreading of RNA targeting and DNA methylation in RNA silencing requires transcription of the target gene and a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Vaistij, F.E., Jones, L., Baulcombe, D.C. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Genetic dissection of carotenoid synthesis in arabidopsis defines plastoquinone as an essential component of phytoene desaturation. Norris, S.R., Barrette, T.R., DellaPenna, D. Plant Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of functional elements inserted into the 35S promoter region of infectious cauliflower mosaic virus replicons. Noad, R.J., Turner, D.S., Covey, S.N. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Assessment of penetrance and expressivity of RNAi-mediated silencing of the Arabidopsis phytoene desaturase gene. Wang, T., Iyer, L.M., Pancholy, R., Shi, X., Hall, T.C. New Phytol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Virus-induced gene silencing in Solanum species. Brigneti, G., Martín-Hernández, A.M., Jin, H., Chen, J., Baulcombe, D.C., Baker, B., Jones, J.D. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Why is golden rice golden (yellow) instead of red? Schaub, P., Al-Babili, S., Drake, R., Beyer, P. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Light-dependent regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis occurs at the level of phytoene synthase expression and is mediated by phytochrome in Sinapis alba and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. von Lintig, J., Welsch, R., Bonk, M., Giuliano, G., Batschauer, A., Kleinig, H. Plant J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of phytoene desaturase expression is independent of leaf pigment content in Arabidopsis thaliana. Wetzel, C.M., Rodermel, S.R. Plant Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of a higher plant herbicide-resistant phytoene desaturase and its use as a selectable marker. Arias, R.S., Dayan, F.E., Michel, A., Howell, J., Scheffler, B.E. Plant Biotechnol. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Gene silencing using a heat-inducible RNAi system in Arabidopsis. Masclaux, F., Charpenteau, M., Takahashi, T., Pont-Lezica, R., Galaud, J.P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
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