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Gene Review

TPS2  -  trehalose-phosphatase TPS2

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: HOG2, PFK3, TPP, Trehalose synthase complex catalytic subunit TPS2, Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase, ...
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Disease relevance of TPS2


High impact information on TPS2

  • One such mutation was further characterized and the affected gene was shown to be identical to TPS2 which encodes trehalose phosphate phosphatase, an enzyme catalysing the second step in trehalose biosynthesis [3].
  • The marked phenotype obtained of plants accumulating T6P is opposite to that of plants with low T6P levels obtained by expressing either TPP or TPH and consistent with a critical role for T6P in growth and development [4].
  • Since we observed measurable trehalose in strains lacking all but the TPS1 gene, some phosphatase activity in addition to Tps2 can hydrolyze trehalose 6-phosphate [5].
  • The TPS2 promoter contains four STREs that may mediate dihydrosphingosine responsiveness [6].
  • Synthesis of trehalose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is catalysed by the trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) synthase/phosphatase complex, which is composed of at least three different subunits encoded by the genes TPS1, TPS2, and TSL1 [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of TPS2

  • None of the sequences was similar to the E1 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase from E. coli which also decarboxylates pyruvate with the help of TPP [8].
  • Skin samples were washed in mixtures of TPP and fatty acid, and the populations of total aerobic bacteria, campylobacters, enterococci, E. coli, lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, staphylococci, and yeasts in the skin rinsates were enumerated on the appropriate microbiological media [2].

Biological context of TPS2


Anatomical context of TPS2

  • Inhibition of hexokinase activity by Tre6P is less efficiently counteracted by glucose in permeabilized spheroplasts compared to cell extracts, and this effect is largely abolished by deletion of TPS2 but not TPS1 [14].
  • After 8 days, the level of TPP in the erythrocytes of deficient animals was 10% of the level in pair-fed controls [15].

Associations of TPS2 with chemical compounds

  • The byp 1-3 tps2 delta double mutant showed elevated tre-6-P levels along with improved growth and ethanol production, although the estimated concentrations of glycolytic metabolites indicated excessive sugar influx [16].
  • Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) is a coenzyme derived from vitamin B1 (thiamin) [17].
  • TPP is essential for central metabolic processes, including the formation of acetyl CoA from glucose and the Krebs cycle [17].
  • In other TPP-utilizing enzymes, the equivalent residue of Q428 is a histidine and is thought to deprotonate the 4'-amino group [18].
  • 31P NMR studies with PDC in the presence of added Mn2+ reveal the pyrophosphate moiety of TPP to be a nonaccessible area for the external Mn2+ and thus proving the Mg-P-complex (taking part in the binding of the coenzyme to the protein) to be a nonaccessible area for the medium [19].

Physical interactions of TPS2


Other interactions of TPS2

  • Gene disruptions showed that tps2 and hsp104 null mutants each produced moderate heat shock sensitivity in stationary phase cells [9].
  • Finally, we isolated a high copy number suppressor of the temperature sensitivity of tps2, which we call PMU1, which reduced the levels of trehalose-6-phosphate in tps2 mutants [9].
  • Analysis of PFK3--a gene involved in particulate phosphofructokinase synthesis reveals additional functions of TPS2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TPS2


  1. Analysis of the otsBA operon for osmoregulatory trehalose synthesis in Escherichia coli and homology of the OtsA and OtsB proteins to the yeast trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase complex. Kaasen, I., McDougall, J., Strøm, A.R. Gene (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Microbicidal activity of tripotassium phosphate and fatty acids toward spoilage and pathogenic bacteria associated with poultry. Hinton, A., Ingram, K.D. J. Food Prot. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Yap1p, a yeast transcriptional activator that mediates multidrug resistance, regulates the metabolic stress response. Gounalaki, N., Thireos, G. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Trehalose 6-phosphate is indispensable for carbohydrate utilization and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Schluepmann, H., Pellny, T., van Dijken, A., Smeekens, S., Paul, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Composition and functional analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae trehalose synthase complex. Bell, W., Sun, W., Hohmann, S., Wera, S., Reinders, A., De Virgilio, C., Wiemken, A., Thevelein, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Sphingolipids are potential heat stress signals in Saccharomyces. Dickson, R.C., Nagiec, E.E., Skrzypek, M., Tillman, P., Wells, G.B., Lester, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Structural analysis of the subunits of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their function during heat shock. Reinders, A., Bürckert, N., Hohmann, S., Thevelein, J.M., Boller, T., Wiemken, A., De Virgilio, C. Mol. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Pyruvate decarboxylase is like acetolactate synthase (ILV2) and not like the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 subunit. Green, J.B. FEBS Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Synergy between trehalose and Hsp104 for thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Elliott, B., Haltiwanger, R.S., Futcher, B. Genetics (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning and characterization of genes encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS1) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPS2) from Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Kwon, H.B., Yeo, E.T., Hahn, S.E., Bae, S.C., Kim, D.Y., Byun, M.O. FEMS Yeast Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Trehalose metabolism in Arabidopsis: occurrence of trehalose and molecular cloning and characterization of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase homologues. Vogel, G., Fiehn, O., Jean-Richard-dit-Bressel, L., Boller, T., Wiemken, A., Aeschbacher, R.A., Wingler, A. J. Exp. Bot. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. The orlA gene from Aspergillus nidulans encodes a trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase necessary for normal growth and chitin synthesis at elevated temperatures. Borgia, P.T., Miao, Y., Dodge, C.L. Mol. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Analysis of PFK3--a gene involved in particulate phosphofructokinase synthesis reveals additional functions of TPS2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sur, I.P., Lobo, Z., Maitra, P.K. Yeast (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Reconstitution of ethanolic fermentation in permeabilized spheroplasts of wild-type and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Noubhani, A., Bunoust, O., Rigoulet, M., Thevelein, J.M. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. The determination of thiamin pyrophosphate in blood and other tissues, and its correlation with erythrocyte transketolase activity. Warnock, L.G., Prudhomme, C.R., Wagner, C. J. Nutr. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Evidence for trehalose-6-phosphate-dependent and -independent mechanisms in the control of sugar influx into yeast glycolysis. Hohmann, S., Bell, W., Neves, M.J., Valckx, D., Thevelein, J.M. Mol. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Crystal structure of thiamin pyrophosphokinase. Timm, D.E., Liu, J., Baker, L.J., Harris, R.A. J. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Conserved residues are functionally distinct within transketolases of different species. Singleton, C.K., Wang, J.J., Shan, L., Martin, P.R. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. 31P NMR investigations on free and enzyme bound thiamine pyrophosphate. Flatau, S., Fischer, G., Kleinpeter, E., Schellenberger, A. FEBS Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. On the mechanism by which a heat shock induces trehalose accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Neves, M.J., François, J. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
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