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Gene Review

CHC1  -  clathrin heavy chain

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Clathrin heavy chain, YGL206C
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High impact information on CHC1

  • Actin, myosin 2, and clathrin heavy chain are involved in mating partner discrimination, since strains carrying mutations in the genes encoding these proteins result in a small but significant defect in mating partner discrimination [1].
  • Even in the presence of the suppressor gene, mutants lacking the clathrin heavy chain grow slowly, are genetically unstable, are morphologically abnormal, and show loss of or reduction in several yeast functions [2].
  • Sec17 also shares structural features with HEAT and clathrin heavy chain repeats [3].
  • Here, we have found that disruptions in the genes encoding a dynamin-related protein (VPS1) or clathrin heavy chain (CHC1) abolish HDSV production, yielding LDSVs that contain all secreted cargos [4].
  • The drs2 null allele is also synthetically lethal with clathrin heavy chain (chc1) temperature-sensitive alleles, but not with mutations in COPI subunits or other SEC genes tested [5].

Biological context of CHC1


Anatomical context of CHC1


Associations of CHC1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of CHC1

  • In contrast, inactivation of the clathrin heavy-chain gene CHC1 results in transport of Kex2p and other Golgi membrane proteins to the cell surface [16].
  • Surprisingly, strains harboring chc1-5 exhibited a significant defect in transport of carboxypeptidase Y or carboxypeptidase S to the vacuole that was not observed in other chc1 ts mutants [17].
  • Cells expressing the S(all)A mutant Clc1p displayed no defects in Clc1p binding to clathrin heavy chain, clathrin trimer stability, sorting of a soluble vacuolar protein, or receptor-mediated endocytosis of mating pheromone [18].

Regulatory relationships of CHC1

  • By constructing strains in which CHC1 expression is regulated by the GAL10 promoter, we demonstrate that the lethal alleles of SCD1 and CDL1 are recessive [19].
  • However, deletion of APM1 greatly enhanced the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype and the alpha-factor processing defect displayed by cells carrying a temperature-sensitive allele of the clathrin heavy chain gene [20].

Other interactions of CHC1

  • Here, the relationship of the two localization defects was assessed by examining the effects of a temperature-sensitive CHC1 allele on trafficking of wild-type (WT) and TLS mutant forms of Kex2p [16].
  • If CHC1 was overexpressed in clc1-delta cells, heavy chain trimers were detected and several clc1-delta phenotypes were partially rescued [8].
  • However, aps1 delta accentuated the slow growth and alpha-factor pheromone maturation defect of cells carrying a temperature-sensitive allele of clathrin heavy chain (Chc) (chc1-ts) [21].
  • This genetic interaction between arf1 and chc1 provides in vivo evidence for a role for ARF in clathrin coat assembly [17].
  • After a shift to growth on glucose to repress synthesis of clathrin heavy chains, UBI4 mRNA levels were elevated > 10-fold, whereas the quantity of free ubiquitin declined severalfold relative to that of Chc+ cells [6].


  1. S. cerevisiae alpha pheromone receptors activate a novel signal transduction pathway for mating partner discrimination. Jackson, C.L., Konopka, J.B., Hartwell, L.H. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Clathrin requirement for normal growth of yeast. Lemmon, S.K., Jones, E.W. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Crystal structure of the vesicular transport protein Sec17: implications for SNAP function in SNARE complex disassembly. Rice, L.M., Brunger, A.T. Mol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Dynamin and clathrin are required for the biogenesis of a distinct class of secretory vesicles in yeast. Gurunathan, S., David, D., Gerst, J.E. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Role for Drs2p, a P-type ATPase and potential aminophospholipid translocase, in yeast late Golgi function. Chen, C.Y., Ingram, M.F., Rosal, P.H., Graham, T.R. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Suppressors of clathrin deficiency: overexpression of ubiquitin rescues lethal strains of clathrin-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nelson, K.K., Lemmon, S.K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. CDC55, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene involved in cellular morphogenesis: identification, characterization, and homology to the B subunit of mammalian type 2A protein phosphatase. Healy, A.M., Zolnierowicz, S., Stapleton, A.E., Goebl, M., DePaoli-Roach, A.A., Pringle, J.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Novel functions of clathrin light chains: clathrin heavy chain trimerization is defective in light chain-deficient yeast. Huang, K.M., Gullberg, L., Nelson, K.K., Stefan, C.J., Blumer, K., Lemmon, S.K. J. Cell. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Synthetic genetic interactions with temperature-sensitive clathrin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Roles for synaptojanin-like Inp53p and dynamin-related Vps1p in clathrin-dependent protein sorting at the trans-Golgi network. Bensen, E.S., Costaguta, G., Payne, G.S. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Retrograde lipid traffic in yeast: identification of two distinct pathways for internalization of fluorescent-labeled phosphatidylcholine from the plasma membrane. Kean, L.S., Fuller, R.S., Nichols, J.W. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. A role for clathrin in the sorting of vacuolar proteins in the Golgi complex of yeast. Seeger, M., Payne, G.S. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Clathrin-dependent localization of alpha 1,3 mannosyltransferase to the Golgi complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Graham, T.R., Seeger, M., Payne, G.S., MacKay, V.L., Emr, S.D. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Calcyon, a novel partner of clathrin light chain, stimulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Xiao, J., Dai, R., Negyessy, L., Bergson, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Vps10p cycles between the TGN and the late endosome via the plasma membrane in clathrin mutants. Deloche, O., Schekman, R.W. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. The synaptojanin-like protein Inp53/Sjl3 functions with clathrin in a yeast TGN-to-endosome pathway distinct from the GGA protein-dependent pathway. Ha, S.A., Torabinejad, J., DeWald, D.B., Wenk, M.R., Lucast, L., De Camilli, P., Newitt, R.A., Aebersold, R., Nothwehr, S.F. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. The effects of clathrin inactivation on localization of Kex2 protease are independent of the TGN localization signal in the cytosolic tail of Kex2p. Redding, K., Seeger, M., Payne, G.S., Fuller, R.S. Mol. Biol. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. An arf1Delta synthetic lethal screen identifies a new clathrin heavy chain conditional allele that perturbs vacuolar protein transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chen, C.Y., Graham, T.R. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. A modulatory role for clathrin light chain phosphorylation in Golgi membrane protein localization during vegetative growth and during the mating response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chu, D.S., Pishvaee, B., Payne, G.S. Mol. Biol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Viability of clathrin heavy-chain-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae is compromised by mutations at numerous loci: implications for the suppression hypothesis. Munn, A.L., Silveira, L., Elgort, M., Payne, G.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. A late Golgi sorting function for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Apm1p, but not for Apm2p, a second yeast clathrin AP medium chain-related protein. Stepp, J.D., Pellicena-Palle, A., Hamilton, S., Kirchhausen, T., Lemmon, S.K. Mol. Biol. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae APS1 gene encodes a homolog of the small subunit of the mammalian clathrin AP-1 complex: evidence for functional interaction with clathrin at the Golgi complex. Phan, H.L., Finlay, J.A., Chu, D.S., Tan, P.K., Kirchhausen, T., Payne, G.S. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
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