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Gene Review

DRS2  -  aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type...

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: FUN38, SWA3, YAL026C
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High impact information on DRS2

  • Recent studies describe a requirement for the yeast Drs2p family of P-type ATPases in both phospholipid translocation and protein transport in the secretory and endocytic pathways [1].
  • The drs2 null allele is also synthetically lethal with clathrin heavy chain (chc1) temperature-sensitive alleles, but not with mutations in COPI subunits or other SEC genes tested [2].
  • Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence analysis indicate that Drs2p localizes to late Golgi membranes containing Kex2p [2].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of ALA1 is homologous with those of yeast DRS2 and bovine ATPase II, both of which are putative aminophospholipid translocases [3].
  • However, cho1 yeast strains that are unable to synthesize PS do not phenocopy drs2 but instead transport proteins normally via the secretory pathway [4].

Biological context of DRS2

  • NEO1 is the only essential gene in APT family and seems to be functionally distinct from the DRS2/DNF genes [5].
  • The specificity of Drs2p for NBD-PS suggested that translocation of PS would be required for the function of Drs2p in protein transport from the TGN [4].
  • The predicted amino acid sequence encoded by DRS2 contains seven transmembrane domains, a phosphate-binding loop found in ATP- or GTP-binding proteins, and a seven-amino-acid sequence detected in all classes of P-type ATPases [6].
  • Deletion and mutational analysis identified two downstream activation sites (DAS1 and DAS2) and two downstream repressor sites (DRS1 and DRS2) that influence the rate of LPD1 transcription rather than mRNA degradation or translation [7].
  • The cold-sensitive phenotype of drs2 is suppressed by extra copies of the TEF3 gene, which encodes a yeast homolog of eukaryotic translation elongation factor EF-1 gamma [6].

Anatomical context of DRS2


Associations of DRS2 with chemical compounds

  • The neomycin-resistance 1 gene (NEO1) encodes a potential 1151 as integral membrane protein, most homologous to the yeast DRS2 gene product, a Ca(2+)-ATPase involved in cytoplasmic ribosome assembly [10].
  • Gel mobility shift analysis and in vitro DNase I footprinting have shown that proteins bind specifically to two downstream repressor sequences (DRS1 located from +140 to +163 and DRS2 located between +231 and +251) that influence the rate of HXK2 transcription when ethanol is used as carbon source by Saccharomyces cerevisiae [11].
  • Furthermore, the absence of Drs2p had no effect on the amount of endogenous PE exposed to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane as detected by labeling with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid [9].
  • Defects in structural integrity of ergosterol and the Cdc50p-Drs2p putative phospholipid translocase cause accumulation of endocytic membranes, onto which actin patches are assembled in yeast [12].
  • Drs2p, a P-type adenosine triphosphatase required for a phosphatidylserine (PS) flippase activity in the yeast trans Golgi network (TGN), was first implicated in protein trafficking by a screen for mutations synthetically lethal with arf1 (swa) [13].

Physical interactions of DRS2


Other interactions of DRS2

  • Genetic studies suggest that CDC50 performs a function similar to DRS2, which encodes a P-type ATPase of the aminophospholipid translocase (APT) subfamily [14].
  • Moreover, SVs have an asymmetric PE arrangement that is lost upon removal of Drs2p and Dnf3p [17].
  • Unlike TEF3, extra copies of TEF4 do not suppress the cold-sensitive 40S ribosomal subunit deficiency of a drs2 strain [18].
  • DRS1 requires the concerted action of DRS2 (a RAP1 motif at position +406) for repression of transcription only when the gene is induced [7].
  • Yeast P4-ATPases Drs2p and Dnf1p Are Essential Cargos of the NPFXD/Sla1p Endocytic Pathway [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DRS2


  1. Flippases and vesicle-mediated protein transport. Graham, T.R. Trends Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Role for Drs2p, a P-type ATPase and potential aminophospholipid translocase, in yeast late Golgi function. Chen, C.Y., Ingram, M.F., Rosal, P.H., Graham, T.R. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Chilling tolerance in Arabidopsis involves ALA1, a member of a new family of putative aminophospholipid translocases. Gomès, E., Jakobsen, M.K., Axelsen, K.B., Geisler, M., Palmgren, M.G. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Drs2p-coupled aminophospholipid translocase activity in yeast Golgi membranes and relationship to in vivo function. Natarajan, P., Wang, J., Hua, Z., Graham, T.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. An essential subfamily of Drs2p-related P-type ATPases is required for protein trafficking between Golgi complex and endosomal/vacuolar system. Hua, Z., Fatheddin, P., Graham, T.R. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. DRS1 to DRS7, novel genes required for ribosome assembly and function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ripmaster, T.L., Vaughn, G.P., Woolford, J.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Yeast intragenic transcriptional control: activation and repression sites within the coding region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LPD1 gene. Sinclair, D.A., Kornfeld, G.D., Dawes, I.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Drs2p-dependent formation of exocytic clathrin-coated vesicles in vivo. Gall, W.E., Geething, N.C., Hua, Z., Ingram, M.F., Liu, K., Chen, S.I., Graham, T.R. Curr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Loss of Drs2p does not abolish transfer of fluorescence-labeled phospholipids across the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Siegmund, A., Grant, A., Angeletti, C., Malone, L., Nichols, J.W., Rudolph, H.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of an overexpressed yeast gene which prevents aminoglycoside toxicity. Prezant, T.R., Chaltraw, W.E., Fischel-Ghodsian, N. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification and characterisation of two transcriptional repressor elements within the coding sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HXK2 gene. Herrero, P., Ramírez, M., Martínez-Campa, C., Moreno, F. Nucleic Acids Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Defects in structural integrity of ergosterol and the Cdc50p-Drs2p putative phospholipid translocase cause accumulation of endocytic membranes, onto which actin patches are assembled in yeast. Kishimoto, T., Yamamoto, T., Tanaka, K. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Roles for the drs2p-cdc50p complex in protein transport and phosphatidylserine asymmetry of the yeast plasma membrane. Chen, S., Wang, J., Muthusamy, B.P., Liu, K., Zare, S., Andersen, R.J., Graham, T.R. Traffic (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Cdc50p, a protein required for polarized growth, associates with the Drs2p P-type ATPase implicated in phospholipid translocation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saito, K., Fujimura-Kamada, K., Furuta, N., Kato, U., Umeda, M., Tanaka, K. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Requirement for neo1p in retrograde transport from the Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum. Hua, Z., Graham, T.R. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. The Arf activator Gea2p and the P-type ATPase Drs2p interact at the Golgi in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chantalat, S., Park, S.K., Hua, Z., Liu, K., Gobin, R., Peyroche, A., Rambourg, A., Graham, T.R., Jackson, C.L. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Loss of P4 ATPases Drs2p and Dnf3p disrupts aminophospholipid transport and asymmetry in yeast post-Golgi secretory vesicles. Alder-Baerens, N., Lisman, Q., Luong, L., Pomorski, T., Holthuis, J.C. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Multiple genes encode the translation elongation factor EF-1 gamma in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kinzy, T.G., Ripmaster, T.L., Woolford, J.L. Nucleic Acids Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Yeast P4-ATPases Drs2p and Dnf1p Are Essential Cargos of the NPFXD/Sla1p Endocytic Pathway. Liu, K., Hua, Z., Nepute, J.A., Graham, T.R. Mol. Biol. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
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