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Gene Review

Chc  -  Clathrin heavy chain

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG9012, CHC, CLH, Cla, Clh, ...
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Disease relevance of Chc

  • The sterility was efficiently rescued by an autosomal copy of the wild-type Chc gene reintroduced on a P element [1].
  • Together, these results support a model in which HIV-1 Nef downregulates CD4 by promoting its accelerated endocytosis by a clathrin/AP2 pathway [2].

High impact information on Chc

  • The only genetic evidence for kiss-and-run at the synapse comes from mutations in the genes encoding synaptojanin and endophilin, proteins that together function to uncoat vesicles in classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis [3].
  • Endophilin mutations block clathrin-mediated endocytosis but not neurotransmitter release [4].
  • Rapid flow of information in the nervous system involves presynaptic vesicle recycling by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, an event triggered by the alpha-adaptin-containing AP2 complex [5].
  • Formation of invaginated pits on the plasma membrane and subsequent budding of vesicles is an energetically demanding process that involves the cooperation of clathrin with many different proteins [6].
  • In oocytes, the major substrate for clathrin-dependent endocytosis is the vitellogenin receptor Yolkless [7].

Biological context of Chc


Anatomical context of Chc


Associations of Chc with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Chc


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chc


  1. The Drosophila clathrin heavy chain gene: clathrin function is essential in a multicellular organism. Bazinet, C., Katzen, A.L., Morgan, M., Mahowald, A.P., Lemmon, S.K. Genetics (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Downregulation of CD4 by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef is dependent on clathrin and involves direct interaction of nef with the AP2 clathrin adaptor. Chaudhuri, R., Lindwasser, O.W., Smith, W.J., Hurley, J.H., Bonifacino, J.S. J. Virol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. A slowed classical pathway rather than kiss-and-run mediates endocytosis at synapses lacking synaptojanin and endophilin. Dickman, D.K., Horne, J.A., Meinertzhagen, I.A., Schwarz, T.L. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Endophilin mutations block clathrin-mediated endocytosis but not neurotransmitter release. Verstreken, P., Kjaerulff, O., Lloyd, T.E., Atkinson, R., Zhou, Y., Meinertzhagen, I.A., Bellen, H.J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of Drosophila alpha-adaptin in presynaptic vesicle recycling. González-Gaitán, M., Jäckle, H. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Curvature of clathrin-coated pits driven by epsin. Ford, M.G., Mills, I.G., Peter, B.J., Vallis, Y., Praefcke, G.J., Evans, P.R., McMahon, H.T. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The exocyst component Sec5 is present on endocytic vesicles in the oocyte of Drosophila melanogaster. Sommer, B., Oprins, A., Rabouille, C., Munro, S. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The function of the Drosophila fat facets deubiquitinating enzyme in limiting photoreceptor cell number is intimately associated with endocytosis. Cadavid, A.L., Ginzel, A., Fischer, J.A. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of Genes That Interact With Drosophila liquid facets. Eun, S.H., Lea, K., Overstreet, E., Stevens, S., Lee, J.H., Fischer, J.A. Genetics (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Imaging Clathrin Dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster Hemocytes Reveals a Role for Actin in Vesicle Fission. Kochubey, O., Majumdar, A., Klingauf, J. Traffic (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Ca2+ influx through distinct routes controls exocytosis and endocytosis at drosophila presynaptic terminals. Kuromi, H., Honda, A., Kidokoro, Y. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Clathrin-independent pinocytosis is induced in cells overexpressing a temperature-sensitive mutant of dynamin. Damke, H., Baba, T., van der Bliek, A.M., Schmid, S.L. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Plant clathrin heavy chain: sequence analysis and restricted localisation in growing pollen tubes. Blackbourn, H.D., Jackson, A.P. J. Cell. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Amphiphysins: raising the BAR for synaptic vesicle recycling and membrane dynamics. Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvsp. Zhang, B., Zelhof, A.C. Traffic (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Mutations in the second C2 domain of synaptotagmin disrupt synaptic transmission at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Mackler, J.M., Reist, N.E. J. Comp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Two isoforms of Drosophila dynamin in wild-type and shibire(ts) neural tissue: different subcellular localization and association mechanisms. Gass, G.V., Lin, J.J., Scaife, R., Wu, C.F. J. Neurogenet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. The range of spalt-activating Dpp signalling is reduced in endocytosis-defective Drosophila wing discs. González-Gaitán, M., Jäckle, H. Mech. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. The ubiquitin-interacting motifs target the endocytic adaptor protein epsin for ubiquitination. Oldham, C.E., Mohney, R.P., Miller, S.L., Hanes, R.N., O'Bryan, J.P. Curr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. synaptotagmin mutants reveal essential functions for the C2B domain in Ca2+-triggered fusion and recycling of synaptic vesicles in vivo. Littleton, J.T., Bai, J., Vyas, B., Desai, R., Baltus, A.E., Garment, M.B., Carlson, S.D., Ganetzky, B., Chapman, E.R. J. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Unique biochemical and behavioral alterations in Drosophila shibire(ts1) mutants imply a conformational state affecting dynamin subcellular distribution and synaptic vesicle cycling. Chen, M.L., Green, D., Liu, L., Lam, Y.C., Mukai, L., Rao, S., Ramagiri, S., Krishnan, K.S., Engel, J.E., Lin, J.J., Wu, C.F. J. Neurobiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Mutations in the heatshock cognate 70 protein (hsc4) modulate Notch signaling. Hing, H.K., Bangalore, L., Sun, X., Artavanis-Tsakonas, S. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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