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Gene Review

HXT2  -  Hxt2p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: High-affinity glucose transporter HXT2, YM8270.15, YMR011W
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Disease relevance of HXT2

  • A homologous glucose transporter from the same organism, Hxt2, was selected, and various chimeras between these two transporters were constructed by making use of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli [1].

High impact information on HXT2

  • Transcription of the yeast HXT2 and HXT4 genes, which encode glucose transporters, is induced only by low levels of glucose [2].
  • The HXT1 protein is 69% identical to GAL2 and 66% identical to HXT2, and all three proteins were found to have a putative leucine zipper motif at a consensus location in membrane-spanning domain 2 [3].
  • Genetic and biochemical analyses suggest that wild-type levels of high-affinity glucose transport require the products of both the HXT2 and SNF3 genes; these genes are not linked [4].
  • Analysis of the DNA sequence of HXT2 revealed an open reading frame of 541 codons, capable of encoding a protein of Mr 59,840 [4].
  • Several amino acid motifs characteristic of this sugar transporter family are also present in the HXT2 protein [4].

Biological context of HXT2

  • The amino acid sequence deduced from the gene structure contained the 12 hydrophobic segments typical of a transmembrane protein, and showed a high degree of homology with the GAL2 (galactose permease) and HXT2 (a high-affinity glucose transporter) proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [5].
  • However, Hxt2p kinetics in cells grown on low glucose concentrations showed a high-affinity (Km = 1.5 mM) and a low-affinity component (Km = 60 mM) [6].
  • The HXT2 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified on the basis of its ability to complement the defect in glucose transport of a snf3 mutant when present on the multicopy plasmid pSC2 [4].
  • Snf1p-dependent Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) recruitment and chromatin remodeling activities on the HXT2 and HXT4 promoters [7].
  • Chromosomal analyses indicated the stable location of HXT2 on the same chromosome and with the same copy number throughout the entire sensu stricto group [8].

Anatomical context of HXT2


Associations of HXT2 with chemical compounds

  • Expression of either HXT2, 6 or 7 in the null background is sufficient for growth on 0.1% glucose, while growth of strains with only HXT1, 3 or 4 requires higher (> or = 1%) glucose concentrations [10].
  • Hxt2p was not expressed by wild-type S. cerevisiae in media containing only ethanol or galactose as carbon and energy source but was expressed if glucose was added [11].
  • Expression of putative high-affinity glucose transport protein Hxt2p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was repressed 15- to 20-fold in high concentrations of glucose or fructose [11].
  • In addition to leucine 201 (TM5), four residues of Hxt2 (leucine 59 and leucine 61 in TM1, asparagine 331 in TM7, and phenylalanine 366 in TM8) were found to be important for such activity [12].
  • Of the 35 amino acids in the TM1O region, only 12 differ between Ga12 and Hxt2, indicating that these 12 amino acids include the critical residue(s) responsible for the differential recognition of galactose and glucose in these transporters [13].

Physical interactions of HXT2

  • Comprehensive analysis of chimeras of these two proteins has previously revealed that TMs 1, 5, 7, and 8 of Hxt2 are required for high affinity glucose transport activity and that leucine 201 in TM5 is the most important in this regard of the 20 amino acid residues in these regions that differ between Hxt2 and Hxt1 [12].

Regulatory relationships of HXT2

  • Similarly, Hxt2p was found to be expressed under low-glucose conditions in an snf3 mutant which does not display high-affinity uptake [11].
  • An hxk2-delta 1::URA3 mutant did not detectably express Hxt2p in ethanol or galactose, but an ssn6-delta9 mutant did highly express Hxt2p in both carbon sources [11].

Other interactions of HXT2

  • This finding suggests that SNF3 may be involved in the posttranslational regulation of Hxt2p [11].
  • Thus, simple relief of glucose repression as occurs with hxk2 null mutants is insufficient for high-level Hxt2p expression [11].
  • SKS1 defines a novel, Snf3p-independent pathway for the expression of Hxt2p [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HXT2

  • Low-stringency Southern blot analysis revealed a number of other sequences that cross-hybridize with HXT2, suggesting that S. cerevisiae possesses a large family of sugar transporter genes [4].
  • Hxt2 as measured by immunoblotting increased 20-fold upon a shift from high-glucose to low-glucose medium, and the high-affinity glucose transport expressed had a strong HXT2-dependent component [9].


  1. Substrate recognition domain of the Gal2 galactose transporter in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as revealed by chimeric galactose-glucose transporters. Nishizawa, K., Shimoda, E., Kasahara, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Two different repressors collaborate to restrict expression of the yeast glucose transporter genes HXT2 and HXT4 to low levels of glucose. Ozcan, S., Johnston, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. The HXT1 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a new member of the family of hexose transporters. Lewis, D.A., Bisson, L.F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. The HXT2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for high-affinity glucose transport. Kruckeberg, A.L., Bisson, L.F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Glucose transport in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. I. Properties of an inducible low-affinity glucose transporter gene. Wésolowski-Louvel, M., Goffrini, P., Ferrero, I., Fukuhara, H. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Kinetic characterization of individual hexose transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their relation to the triggering mechanisms of glucose repression. Reifenberger, E., Boles, E., Ciriacy, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Snf1p-dependent Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) recruitment and chromatin remodeling activities on the HXT2 and HXT4 promoters. van Oevelen, C.J., van Teeffelen, H.A., van Werven, F.J., Timmers, H.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Variability of HXT2 at the protein and gene level among the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group. Selvi, S., Cardinali, G., Ciani, M. FEMS Yeast Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Physiological characterization of putative high-affinity glucose transport protein Hxt2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by use of anti-synthetic peptide antibodies. Wendell, D.L., Bisson, L.F. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of novel HXT genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals the impact of individual hexose transporters on glycolytic flux. Reifenberger, E., Freidel, K., Ciriacy, M. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of high-affinity glucose transport protein Hxt2p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is both repressed and induced by glucose and appears to be regulated posttranslationally. Wendell, D.L., Bisson, L.F. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Eight amino acid residues in transmembrane segments of yeast glucose transporter Hxt2 are required for high affinity transport. Kasahara, T., Ishiguro, M., Kasahara, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Transmembrane segment 10 is important for substrate recognition in Ga12 and Hxt2 sugar transporters in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kasahara, M., Shimoda, E., Maeda, M. FEBS Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. The SKS1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for long-term adaptation of snf3 null strains to low glucose. Vagnoli, P., Bisson, L.F. Yeast (1998) [Pubmed]
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