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Gene Review

ZWF1  -  glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: G6PD, Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, MET19, N1110, POS10, ...
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Disease relevance of ZWF1

  • In addition, screening of the deletion strains for hypersensitivity to SFK2 yielded ZWF1, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which has been shown to play an overlapping role with Ald6p in NADPH production [1].
  • Human G6PD gene is highly polymorphic, with over 130 mutations identified, many of which cause hemolytic anemia [2].
  • Subsequently, antibodies against G6PD were raised using a phage display library [3].

High impact information on ZWF1

  • Disruption of the ZWF1 gene, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, results in methionine auxotrophy and increased sensitivity to oxidizing agents [4].
  • Collectively, these results suggest that IDP2, when expressed, and ZWF1 have critical overlapping functions in provision of reducing equivalents for defense against endogenous or exogenous sources of H2O2 [5].
  • These mutants include haploid strains containing all possible combinations of deletions in yeast genes encoding three differentially compartmentalized isozymes of NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase and in the gene encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf1p) [6].
  • We determined that a functional ZWF1 gene product was required for TKL1 to suppress sod1Delta, leading us to propose that increased flux through the oxidative reactions of the pentose phosphate pathway can rescue sod1 methionine auxotrophy [7].
  • Our studies suggest that this defect results from the impaired redox status of aerobically grown sod1 and zwf1 mutants, implicating Sod1 and the pentose phosphate pathway as being critical for maintenance of the cellular redox state [7].

Biological context of ZWF1

  • Cumulative effects are reflected in phenotypes, including sensitivity to acetate medium and a reduction in mating efficiency, that become more pronounced with time following disruption of the ZWF1 and IDP2 genes [8].
  • Like ZWF1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, KlZWF1 was constitutively expressed, and its deletion led to increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide on glucose, but unlike the case for S. cerevisiae, the Klzwf1Delta strain had a reduced biomass yield on fermentative carbon sources as well as on lactate and glycerol [9].
  • The predicted amino acid sequence of yeast G6PD is highly similar to the sequence of the Drosophila, human, and rat enzymes, except near its N terminus, where the yeast and Drosophila sequences diverge from that of human and rat [10].
  • As zwf1 homozygous diploids are able to sporulate this indicates that the large amount of fatty acid biosynthesis observed in sporulation of wild-type strains is not essential to the process [11].
  • The P409R substitution leads to drastic changes in G6PD kinetics [2].

Associations of ZWF1 with chemical compounds

  • Production of NADPH in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown on glucose has been attributed to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf1p) and a cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald6p) (Grabowska, D., and Chelstowska, A. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 13984-13988) [12].
  • Instead, we propose that the common function shared by IDP2 and ZWF1 is maintenance of significant levels of NADPH for enzymatic removal of the hydrogen peroxide generated in the first step of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in yeast and that inadequate levels of the reduced form of the cofactor can produce lethality [5].
  • Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a fatty acid as carbon source was shown previously to require function of either glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (ZWF1) or cytosolic NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDP2), suggesting dependence of beta-oxidation on a cytosolic source of NADPH [5].
  • TMB3255, carrying a disruption of ZWF1, gave the highest ethanol yield (0.41 g g(-1)) and the lowest xylitol yield (0.05 g g(-1)) reported for a xylose-fermenting recombinant S. cerevisiae strain, but also an 84% lower xylose consumption rate [13].
  • The mammalian cytosolic isozyme was found to partition between cytosolic and organellar compartments and to replace functionally Idp2p for production of alpha-ketoglutarate or for growth on fatty acids in a mutant lacking Zwf1p [6].

Other interactions of ZWF1

  • The pentose phosphate pathway was blocked either by disruption of the GND1 gene, one of the isogenes of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, or by disruption of the ZWF1 gene, which encodes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase [13].
  • Regulation of GAL1 expression appears normal in zwf1 mutants, suggesting that the pentose phosphate pathway is not involved in glucose repression [10].
  • In the ZWF1-disrupted background, the increase in XR activity fully restored the xylose consumption rate [14].
  • Kinetic characterization of the inhibition effects of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) on glutathione reductase (GSSGR; EC and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; EC from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was made [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ZWF1

  • The enzyme, identified by both activity staining and anti-yeast G6PD antibody immunoblotting, was shown to contain carbohydrate using the highly specific periodate-digoxigenin antidigoxigenin method which is diagnostic for glycoproteins [16].


  1. Identification of Ald6p as the target of a class of small-molecule suppressors of FK506 and their use in network dissection. Butcher, R.A., Schreiber, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. A novel mutation in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in a subject with chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia--characterization of enzyme using yeast expression system and molecular modeling. Grabowska, D., Jablonska-Skwiecinska, E., Plochocka, D., Chelstowska, A., Lewandowska, I., Witos, I., Majewska, Z., Rokicka-Milewska, R., Burzynska, B. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Design and peptide-based validation of phage display antibodies for proteomic biochips. Stich, N., van Steen, G., Schalkhammer, T. Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. The ALD6 gene product is indispensable for providing NADPH in yeast cells lacking glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Grabowska, D., Chelstowska, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Dependence of peroxisomal beta-oxidation on cytosolic sources of NADPH. Minard, K.I., McAlister-Henn, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Sources of NADPH and expression of mammalian NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Minard, K.I., Jennings, G.T., Loftus, T.M., Xuan, D., McAlister-Henn, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. The yeast copper/zinc superoxide dismutase and the pentose phosphate pathway play overlapping roles in oxidative stress protection. Slekar, K.H., Kosman, D.J., Culotta, V.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Antioxidant function of cytosolic sources of NADPH in yeast. Minard, K.I., McAlister-Henn, L. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Deletion of the Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene KlZWF1 Affects both Fermentative and Respiratory Metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis. Saliola, M., Scappucci, G., De Maria, I., Lodi, T., Mancini, P., Falcone, C. Eukaryotic Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Isolation and characterization of the ZWF1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Nogae, I., Johnston, M. Gene (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. A study of the role of the hexose monophosphate pathway with respect to fatty acid biosynthesis in sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dickinson, J.R., Hewlins, M.J. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Sources of NADPH in yeast vary with carbon source. Minard, K.I., McAlister-Henn, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Reduced oxidative pentose phosphate pathway flux in recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains improves the ethanol yield from xylose. Jeppsson, M., Johansson, B., Hahn-Hägerdal, B., Gorwa-Grauslund, M.F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of enhanced xylose reductase activity on xylose consumption and product distribution in xylose-fermenting recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Jeppsson, M., Träff, K., Johansson, B., Hahn-Hägerdal, B., Gorwa-Grauslund, M.F. FEMS Yeast Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Zn(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) interactions on glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Serafini, M.T., Romeu, A., Arola, L. Biochem. Int. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a glycoprotein. Reilly, K.E., Allred, J.B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
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