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Gene Review

TPK2  -  cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic...

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: PKA 2, PKA2, PKA3, YKR1, YPL203W, ...
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High impact information on TPK2

  • We have isolated three genes (TPK1, TPK2, and TPK3) from the yeast S. cerevisiae that encode the catalytic subunits of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase [1].
  • Saccharomyces cells secrete aromatic alcohols that stimulate morphogenesis by inducing the expression of FLO11 through a Tpk2p-dependent mechanism [2].
  • Residual derepression in a cAMP-nonresponsive mutant with attenuated protein kinase activity (bcy1 tpk1w tpk2 tpk3) demonstrates the existence of an alternative, cAMP-independent nutrient signaling mechanism [3].
  • Tpk2 negatively regulates genes involved in iron uptake and positively regulates genes involved in trehalose degradation and water homeostasis [4].
  • We demonstrate that they have dramatically different roles in pseudohyphal development: Tpk2 is essential, whereas Tpk3 inhibits [5].

Biological context of TPK2


Associations of TPK2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of TPK2

  • Sfl1 is known to interact with Tpk2, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase that negatively regulates Sfl1 function [12].

Regulatory relationships of TPK2

  • The counter-selectable markers consist of the PKA3 gene under control of the conditional MET25 or CHA1 promoters [13].

Other interactions of TPK2

  • Because Tpk1p and Tpk2p differ in their N-terminal domains of approximately 80--90 amino acids, while the catalytic portions are highly homologous, the functions of hybrid Tpk proteins with exchanged N-terminal domains were tested [6].
  • Three genes TPK1, TPK2 and TPK3 encode in Saccharomyces cerevisiae distinct catalytic subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) [14].
  • In phosphorylation of Pyk1 mainly the Tpk2 catalytic subunit of yeast PKA was involved [15].
  • Diploid cells lacking Gpr1p, Plc1p, or Gpa2p fail to form pseudohyphae upon nitrogen depletion, and the filamentation defect of gpr1Delta and plc1Delta strains is rescued by activating a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway via STE11-4 or by activating a cAMP pathway via overexpressed Tpk2p [16].
  • The Sch9p kinase was not required for the signal generated by deletion of KRH1 and KRH2; however, the cAMP-dependent kinase Tpk2p was required for generation of this signal [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TPK2

  • TPK2 tagged with HA epitope (TPK2-HA-wt) was expressed in mammalian cells as confirmed by Western blot analysis using HA tag and PSTAIRE antibodies [8].


  1. Three different genes in S. cerevisiae encode the catalytic subunits of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Toda, T., Cameron, S., Sass, P., Zoller, M., Wigler, M. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Feedback control of morphogenesis in fungi by aromatic alcohols. Chen, H., Fink, G.R. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Negative regulation of transcription of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalase T (CTT1) gene by cAMP is mediated by a positive control element. Belazzi, T., Wagner, A., Wieser, R., Schanz, M., Adam, G., Hartig, A., Ruis, H. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. The yeast A kinases differentially regulate iron uptake and respiratory function. Robertson, L.S., Causton, H.C., Young, R.A., Fink, G.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The three yeast A kinases have specific signaling functions in pseudohyphal growth. Robertson, L.S., Fink, G.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Distinct and redundant roles of the two protein kinase A isoforms Tpk1p and Tpk2p in morphogenesis and growth of Candida albicans. Bockmühl, D.P., Krishnamurthy, S., Gerads, M., Sonneborn, A., Ernst, J.F. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Stability of neutral trehalase during heat stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent on the activity of the catalytic subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, Tpk1 and Tpk2. Zähringer, H., Holzer, H., Nwaka, S. Eur. J. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Cyclin-dependent kinase TPK2 is a critical cell cycle regulator in Toxoplasma gondii. Khan, F., Tang, J., Qin, C.L., Kim, K. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Protein kinase A encoded by TPK2 regulates dimorphism of Candida albicans. Sonneborn, A., Bockmühl, D.P., Gerads, M., Kurpanek, K., Sanglard, D., Ernst, J.F. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression levels and subcellular localization of Bcy1p in Candida albicans mutant strains devoid of one BCY1 allele results in a defective morphogenetic behavior. Giacometti, R., Souto, G., Silberstein, S., Giasson, L., Cantore, M.L., Passeron, S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Glucose-induced inactivation of isocitrate lyase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits Tpk1 and Tpk2. Ordiz, I., Herrero, P., Rodicio, R., Moreno, F. FEBS Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Sfl1 functions via the co-repressor Ssn6-Tup1 and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase Tpk2. Conlan, R.S., Tzamarias, D. J. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. The pYC plasmids, a series of cassette-based yeast plasmid vectors providing means of counter-selection. Olesen, K., Franke Johannesen, P., Hoffmann, L., Bech Sorensen, S., Gjermansen, C., Hansen, J. Yeast (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Low activity of the yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Tpk3 is due to the poor expression of the TPK3 gene. Mazón, M.J., Behrens, M.M., Morgado, E., Portillo, F. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae pyruvate kinase Pyk1 is PKA phosphorylation substrate in vitro. Cytryńska, M., Frajnt, M., Jakubowicz, T. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Phospholipase C binds to the receptor-like GPR1 protein and controls pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ansari, K., Martin, S., Farkasovsky, M., Ehbrecht, I.M., Küntzel, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Krh1p and Krh2p act downstream of the Gpa2p G(alpha) subunit to negatively regulate haploid invasive growth. Batlle, M., Lu, A., Green, D.A., Xue, Y., Hirsch, J.P. J. Cell. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
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