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Gene Review

PIS1  -  CDP-diacylglycerol--inositol 3...

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: P8283.5, PI synthase, PIS, Phosphatidylinositol synthase, PtdIns synthase, ...
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Disease relevance of PIS1


High impact information on PIS1


Biological context of PIS1

  • Thus, PIS1 gene expression is unique among the phospholipid biosynthetic structural genes because it is uncoupled from the inositol response and regulated in response to the carbon source [4].
  • Expression of the yeast PIS1 gene requires multiple regulatory elements including a Rox1p binding site [5].
  • However, even modest regulation of PIS1 expression has been shown to affect phosphatidylinositol metabolism and to affect cell cycle progression [6].
  • Disruption of the PIS locus in the genome is lethal, indicating that PI is essential for the survival and growth of yeast cells [7].
  • Reverse transcription-PCR revealed that at least some PIS1 transcripts include all AUG codons, and their synthesis is probably directed by a second TATA box upstream of the putative TATA box [8].

Anatomical context of PIS1


Associations of PIS1 with chemical compounds

  • This is unusual because the amounts and/or activities of other phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes are affected by these precursors, and the promoter of the PIS1 gene contains a sequence resembling the regulatory element that coordinates the inositol-mediated regulation (UASINO) [4].
  • We found that expression of the PIS1 gene was reduced when cells were grown in a medium containing glycerol and increased when grown in a medium containing galactose relative to cells grown in a glucose medium [4].
  • The glycerol-mediated repression of PIS1 gene expression required both the MCM1 gene and the MCEs, whereas the SLN1 gene was required for full galactose-mediated induction of a PIS1-lacZ reporter gene [4].
  • These changes can be attributed to an increase in PIS1-encoded PI synthase activity and a decrease in the activities of several CDP-diacylglycerol pathway enzymes including the CHO1-encoded PS (phosphatidylserine) synthase [12].
  • Overexpression of PIS1 did not correct the cellular fatty acid content; however, saturated fatty acids (C(16:0)) accumulated preferentially in phosphatidylinositol, and (wild-type)-like fatty acid composition in phosphatidylethanolamine was restored [13].

Physical interactions of PIS1

  • The PIS1 promoter includes sequences (MCEs) that bind the Mcm1 protein [4].

Regulatory relationships of PIS1


Other interactions of PIS1

  • PI synthase activity follows the decrease of the CDP-DAG synthase activity, but there is no parallel change in the level of PIS1 mRNA [15].
  • This is the first example in yeast of a complete circuit linking a stimulus (carbon source) to gene regulation (PIS1) using a two-component regulator (SLN1) [4].
  • We found that transcription of the PIS1 gene was insensitive to inositol and choline and did not require the putative UASINO regulatory sequence or the cognate regulatory genes (INO2 and OPI1) [4].
  • These results suggest that enhanced phosphatidylinositol synthesis may account for PIS1 suppression of rsp5 defects [13].
  • The PIS1 promoter contains the unusual feature of three ATG codons (ATGs1, 2, and 3) in-frame with three stop codons, located just before the authentic start codon (ATG4) [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PIS1

  • Direct interaction between glutathione S-transferase (GST)-Zap1p(687-880) and a putative upstream activating sequence (UAS) zinc-responsive element in the PIS1 promoter was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays [2].
  • Using a PIS1(promoter)-lacZ reporter expression system and site-directed mutagenesis, we investigated the role the "upstream" ATG codons play in modulation of PIS1 expression [8].
  • Phosphatidylinositol synthase was constitutive in wild type cells grown in the presence of water-soluble phospholipid precursors as determined by enzyme activity and immunoblotting [16].
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular cloning and functional analysis of a gene encoding a PtdIns synthase in protozoan parasites [17].


  1. Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PIS gene and synthesis of phosphatidylinositol in Escherichia coli. Nikawa, J., Kodaki, T., Yamashita, S. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of the PIS1-encoded phosphatidylinositol synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by zinc. Han, S.H., Han, G.S., Iwanyshyn, W.M., Carman, G.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in the yeast cki1Delta eki1Delta mutant defective in the Kennedy pathway. The Cho1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase is regulated by mRNA stability. Choi, H.S., Sreenivas, A., Han, G.S., Carman, G.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Carbon source regulation of PIS1 gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves the MCM1 gene and the two-component regulatory gene, SLN1. Anderson, M.S., Lopes, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of the yeast PIS1 gene requires multiple regulatory elements including a Rox1p binding site. Gardocki, M.E., Lopes, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Genomic analysis of PIS1 gene expression. Gardocki, M.E., Bakewell, M., Kamath, D., Robinson, K., Borovicka, K., Lopes, J.M. Eukaryotic Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Phosphatidylinositol synthase from yeast. Nikawa, J., Yamashita, S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PIS1 gene is modulated by multiple ATGs in the promoter. Iverson, S., Sonnemann, K., Reddick, A., McDonough, V. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Phospholipid-synthesizing enzymes in Golgi membranes of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leber, A., Hrastnik, C., Daum, G. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Enzymes of phosphoinositide synthesis in secretory vesicles destined for the plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kinney, A.J., Carman, G.M. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of a microsomal subfraction associated with mitochondria of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Involvement in synthesis and import of phospholipids into mitochondria. Gaigg, B., Simbeni, R., Hrastnik, C., Paltauf, F., Daum, G. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in yeast by zinc. Carman, G.M. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Enhanced levels of Pis1p (phosphatidylinositol synthase) improve the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient in Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase. Kaliszewski, P., Ferreira, T., Gajewska, B., Szkopinska, A., Berges, T., Zoładek, T. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Coordinate regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: pleiotropically constitutive opi1 mutant. Klig, L.S., Homann, M.J., Carman, G.M., Henry, S.A. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulation of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes by the level of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity. Shen, H., Dowhan, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Phosphatidylinositol synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Reconstitution, characterization, and regulation of activity. Fischl, A.S., Homann, M.J., Poole, M.A., Carman, G.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular cloning, functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and enzymatic properties of phosphatidylinositol synthase from the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Séron, K., Dzierszinski, F., Tomavo, S. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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