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Gene Review

PA5159  -  multidrug resistance protein

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

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Disease relevance of PA5159


High impact information on PA5159


Biological context of PA5159

  • These results indicate that P. aeruginosa IMCJ2.S1 has developed multidrug resistance by acquiring resistance determinants, including a novel member of the aac(6')-I family and mutations in drug resistance genes [9].
  • Sixteen homologs of multidrug resistance efflux pump operons of the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family were found in the Bacteroides fragilis genome sequence by homology searches [3].
  • Two new genes (mexXY) similar to mexAB, mexCD, and mexEF and mediating multidrug resistance were cloned from the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa [10].
  • Some recently published works have analyzed the effect of the overproduction of MDR efflux pumps on bacterial virulence [11].
  • The strain with one of those genotypes appeared to be endemic to the BWC and developed multidrug resistance (MDR) at the end of the study period, whereas the strain with the other genotype was antibiotic susceptible but resistant to silver sulfadiazine (SSD(r)) [12].

Anatomical context of PA5159

  • These strains contained multidrug resistance determinants, were capable of invading epithelial cells and presented genes from the quorum-sensing and type III secretion systems [13].
  • The MDR strain was found at a higher frequency in sputum samples than the SSD(r) strain, which showed a higher prevalence in burn wound samples, suggesting that anatomic habitat selection was associated with adaptive resistance to antimicrobial drugs [12].
  • Current data on the prevalence of multidrug resistance among urinary tract isolates should be a consideration to change the current empiric treatment of urinary tract infections [14].

Associations of PA5159 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of PA5159


Other interactions of PA5159


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PA5159

  • Quantification of the prevalence and the common antimicrobial coresistance patterns of MDR gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) isolates recovered from patients at hospital admission, as well as identification of patients with a high risk of harboring MDR-GNB, would have important implications for patient care [23].


  1. Structure of the periplasmic component of a bacterial drug efflux pump. Higgins, M.K., Bokma, E., Koronakis, E., Hughes, C., Koronakis, V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. On the mechanism of substrate specificity by resistance nodulation division (RND)-type multidrug resistance pumps: the large periplasmic loops of MexD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa are involved in substrate recognition. Mao, W., Warren, M.S., Black, D.S., Satou, T., Murata, T., Nishino, T., Gotoh, N., Lomovskaya, O. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Sixteen homologs of the mex-type multidrug resistance efflux pump in Bacteroides fragilis. Ueda, O., Wexler, H.M., Hirai, K., Shibata, Y., Yoshimura, F., Fujimura, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Clinical Prediction Tool To Identify Patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Respiratory Tract Infections at Greatest Risk for Multidrug Resistance. Lodise, T.P., Miller, C.D., Graves, J., Furuno, J.P., McGregor, J.C., Lomaestro, B., Graffunder, E., McNutt, L.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Colonization and resistance dynamics of gram-negative bacteria in patients during and after hospitalization. Filius, P.M., Gyssens, I.C., Kershof, I.M., Roovers, P.J., Ott, A., Vulto, A.G., Verbrugh, H.A., Endtz, H.P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Prevention of drug access to bacterial targets: permeability barriers and active efflux. Nikaido, H. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. MexAB-OprM hyperexpression in NalC-type multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: identification and characterization of the nalC gene encoding a repressor of PA3720-PA3719. Cao, L., Srikumar, R., Poole, K. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of MexE-MexF-OprN, a positively regulated multidrug efflux system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Köhler, T., Michéa-Hamzehpour, M., Henze, U., Gotoh, N., Curty, L.K., Pechère, J.C. Mol. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain that caused an outbreak in a neurosurgery ward and its aac(6')-Iae gene cassette encoding a novel aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. Sekiguchi, J., Asagi, T., Miyoshi-Akiyama, T., Fujino, T., Kobayashi, I., Morita, K., Kikuchi, Y., Kuratsuji, T., Kirikae, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression in Escherichia coli of a new multidrug efflux pump, MexXY, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mine, T., Morita, Y., Kataoka, A., Mizushima, T., Tsuchiya, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Overexpression of the multidrug efflux pumps MexCD-OprJ and MexEF-OprN is associated with a reduction of type III secretion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Linares, J.F., López, J.A., Camafeita, E., Albar, J.P., Rojo, F., Martínez, J.L. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in a burn unit: persistence of a multidrug-resistant clone and a silver sulfadiazine-resistant clone. Pirnay, J.P., De Vos, D., Cochez, C., Bilocq, F., Pirson, J., Struelens, M., Duinslaeger, L., Cornelis, P., Zizi, M., Vanderkelen, A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Environmental and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa show pathogenic and biodegradative properties irrespective of their origin. Alonso, A., Rojo, F., Martínez, J.L. Environ. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Etiology and susceptibility of urinary tract isolates in Kosova. Raka, L., Mulliqi-Osmani, G., Berisha, L., Begolli, L., Omeragiq, S., Parsons, L., Salfinger, M., Jaka, A., Kurti, A., Jakupi, X. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. National surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from intensive care unit patients from 1993 to 2002. Obritsch, M.D., Fish, D.N., MacLaren, R., Jung, R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Multifocal detection of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing the PER-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Northern Italy. Pagani, L., Mantengoli, E., Migliavacca, R., Nucleo, E., Pollini, S., Spalla, M., Daturi, R., Romero, E., Rossolini, G.M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Emergence of multidrug-resistant mutants is increased under antibiotic selective pressure in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Alonso, A., Campanario, E., Martínez, J.L. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Mutations in PA2491 (mexS) promote MexT-dependent mexEF-oprN expression and multidrug resistance in a clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sobel, M.L., Neshat, S., Poole, K. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Mutations in PA3574 (nalD) lead to increased MexAB-OprM expression and multidrug resistance in laboratory and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sobel, M.L., Hocquet, D., Cao, L., Plesiat, P., Poole, K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Influence of the TonB energy-coupling protein on efflux-mediated multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Zhao, Q., Li, X.Z., Mistry, A., Srikumar, R., Zhang, L., Lomovskaya, O., Poole, K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. The mexR repressor of the mexAB-oprM multidrug efflux operon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: characterization of mutations compromising activity. Adewoye, L., Sutherland, A., Srikumar, R., Poole, K. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Type III Secretion System-Associated Toxins, Proteases, Serotypes, and Antibiotic Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Associated with Keratitis. Zhu, H., Conibear, T.C., Bandara, R., Aliwarga, Y., Stapleton, F., Willcox, M.D. Curr. Eye Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. The rising influx of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli into a tertiary care hospital. Pop-Vicas, A.E., D'Agata, E.M. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
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