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Gene Review

dxs  -  1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase,...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK0414, JW0410, yajP
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Disease relevance of dxs


High impact information on dxs


Chemical compound and disease context of dxs


Biological context of dxs

  • A comparison of the three E. coli strains transformed with the arabinose-inducible dxs on a medium-copy plasmid revealed that lycopene production was highest in XL1-Blue [8].
  • When dxs was placed under the control of the arabinose-inducible promoter (P(BAD)) on the low-copy plasmid, the amount of lycopene produced was proportional to the arabinose concentration and no significant changes in cell growth resulted [12].

Anatomical context of dxs


Associations of dxs with chemical compounds

  • However, at higher arabinose concentrations lycopene production in cells expressing both dxs and dxr was lower than in cells expressing dxs only [8].
  • These results suggested that the nonmevalonate pathway and the mevalonate pathway were mainly used for the primary metabolism and the secondary metabolism, respectively, and that both of the two dxs genes were actually transcribed in this strain [13].
  • The utility of the mutant plasmids for metabolic engineering were further demonstrated by increased beta-carotene production, when an isoprenoid pathway gene (dxs) was co-expressed on a compatible plasmid [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of dxs

  • The corresponding gene, dxs, was cloned from CL190 by using PCR with two oligonucleotide primers synthesized on the basis of two highly conserved regions among dxs homologs from six genera [3].
  • The dxs 1, dxs 2, dxr, mev, and ter genes were used for Northern blot and primer extension analyses to examine temporal expression of these genes together with a gap gene coding for GAP dehydrogenase, which was also cloned in this study and used as an internal control [13].


  1. Cloning and characterization of a gene from Escherichia coli encoding a transketolase-like enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of D-1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate, a common precursor for isoprenoid, thiamin, and pyridoxol biosynthesis. Lois, L.M., Campos, N., Putra, S.R., Danielsen, K., Rohmer, M., Boronat, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, the gene product of open reading frame (ORF) 2816 and ORF 2895 in Rhodobacter capsulatus. Hahn, F.M., Eubanks, L.M., Testa, C.A., Blagg, B.S., Baker, J.A., Poulter, C.D. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and characterization of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase from Streptomyces sp. Strain CL190, which uses both the mevalonate and nonmevalonate pathways for isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis. Kuzuyama, T., Takagi, M., Takahashi, S., Seto, H. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning and characterization of the dxs gene, encoding 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and its overexpression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Lee, J.K., Oh, D.K., Kim, S.Y. J. Biotechnol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Crystal Structure of 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-Phosphate Synthase, a Crucial Enzyme for Isoprenoids Biosynthesis. Xiang, S., Usunow, G., Lange, G., Busch, M., Tong, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. A cytosolic Arabidopsis d-xylulose kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose into a precursor of the plastidial isoprenoid pathway. Hemmerlin, A., Tritsch, D., Hartmann, M., Pacaud, K., Hoeffler, J.F., van Dorsselaer, A., Rohmer, M., Bach, T.J. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of class 2 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase genes from Ginkgo biloba and their transcription in embryo culture with respect to ginkgolide biosynthesis. Kim, S.M., Kuzuyama, T., Chang, Y.J., Song, K.S., Kim, S.U. Planta Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Metabolic engineering of the nonmevalonate isopentenyl diphosphate synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli enhances lycopene production. Kim, S.W., Keasling, J.D. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Metabolic engineering of carotenoid accumulation in Escherichia coli by modulation of the isoprenoid precursor pool with expression of deoxyxylulose phosphate synthase. Matthews, P.D., Wurtzel, E.T. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Essential role of residue H49 for activity of Escherichia coli 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, the enzyme catalyzing the first step of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway for isoprenoid Synthesis. Querol, J., Rodríguez-Concepción, M., Boronat, A., Imperial, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Amplification of 1-deoxy-D: -xyluose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase level increases coenzyme Q(10) production in recombinant Escherichia coli. Kim, S.J., Kim, M.D., Choi, J.H., Kim, S.Y., Ryu, Y.W., Seo, J.H. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Low-copy plasmids can perform as well as or better than high-copy plasmids for metabolic engineering of bacteria. Jones, K.L., Kim, S.W., Keasling, J.D. Metab. Eng. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Growth-phase dependent expression of the mevalonate pathway in a terpenoid antibiotic-producing Streptomyces strain. Hamano, Y., Dairi, T., Yamamoto, M., Kuzuyama, T., Itoh, N., Seto, H. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Directed evolution of copy number of a broad host range plasmid for metabolic engineering. Tao, L., Jackson, R.E., Cheng, Q. Metab. Eng. (2005) [Pubmed]
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