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Gene Review

arcA  -  response regulator in two-component...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK4393, JW4364, cpxC, dye, fexA, ...
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Disease relevance of arcA

  • Regulation of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene of Escherichia coli in response to anaerobiosis and carbon supply: role of the arcA gene product [1].
  • The AD gene, designated arcA, was expressed from recombinant bacteriophage or in cells harboring plasmid subclones from this phage at a level up to 1,000-fold lower than the level in fully derepressed S. sanguis but apparently under the control of its own promoter [2].
  • Knockout mutations were constructed in the arcA gene of a virulent type b strain of Haemophilus influenzae, and the behavior of the resulting mutants was investigated in a number of conditions that mimicked distinct steps in the natural infection pathway [3].
  • We assessed the effects of different arcA mutations on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis in recombinant Escherichia coli strains carrying the pha synthesis genes from Azotobacter sp. strain FA8 [4].

High impact information on arcA


Chemical compound and disease context of arcA


Biological context of arcA

  • The negative control of sucABCD gene expression seen under anaerobic conditions, like that for the sdhCDAB genes, is provided by the arcA and fnr gene products [11].
  • LacZ operon fusions were constructed and were inserted in single copies into strain MC4100 and into its fnr, arcA or hemA carrying derivatives [12].
  • The arcA mutations used were an internal deletion and the arcA2 allele, a leaky mutation for some of the characteristics of the Arc phenotype which confers high respiratory capacity [4].
  • Results from both the transposon array and insertion mutagenesis indicated that arcA, which is known to be a negative response regulator of genes in aerobic pathways, was important for competitiveness in E. coli PHL628 biofilms [13].
  • It binds to a palindromic sequence, very similar to an Escherichia coli Crp binding site, located upstream from arcA [14].

Anatomical context of arcA


Associations of arcA with chemical compounds

  • Levels of aerobic and anaerobic expression in glucose-containing minimal media were similar; both were unaffected by an arcA mutation [16].
  • In an arcA-fnr double mutant, phi(cyd-lac) expression became insignificant, irrespective of the availability of O2 [17].
  • In an arcA mutant devoid of the transcriptional regulator ArcA, glycerol was completely oxidized with nitrate as an electron acceptor, demonstrating derepression and function of the complete pathway [10].
  • Moreover, an increase of DCCD-inhibited H+ efflux by added K+, as well as the characteristics of DCCD-sensitive H(+)-K(+)-exchange found in a parent strain, were lost in the arcA mutant with a defective Arc system, suggesting a repression of enzymes in respiratory pathways [18].
  • It is proposed that the dye (sfrA) gene product is necessary not only for efficient transcription of the F factor genes, but also for some component(s) of the bacterial envelope, loss of which results in sensitivity to toluidine blue [19].

Other interactions of arcA

  • Moreover, the expression levels of the FNR regulated genes, yfiD and frdA, were higher in cultures of the arcA mutant strain compared to the wild-type [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of arcA

  • When grown under microaerobic conditions in a bioreactor, the arcA deletion mutant reached a PHB content of 27% +/- 2% [4].


  1. Regulation of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene of Escherichia coli in response to anaerobiosis and carbon supply: role of the arcA gene product. Park, S.J., McCabe, J., Turna, J., Gunsalus, R.P. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the genes of the arginine deiminase system of Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 10904. Burne, R.A., Parsons, D.T., Marquis, R.E. Infect. Immun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Two-component systems in Haemophilus influenzae: a regulatory role for ArcA in serum resistance. De Souza-Hart, J.A., Blackstock, W., Di Modugno, V., Holland, I.B., Kok, M. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis by recombinant Escherichia coli arcA mutants in microaerobiosis. Nikel, P.I., Pettinari, M.J., Galvagno, M.A., Méndez, B.S. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of ptsG encoding the major glucose transporter is regulated by ArcA in Escherichia coli. Jeong, J.Y., Kim, Y.J., Cho, N., Shin, D., Nam, T.W., Ryu, S., Seok, Y.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. The arcB gene of Escherichia coli encodes a sensor-regulator protein for anaerobic repression of the arc modulon. Iuchi, S., Matsuda, Z., Fujiwara, T., Lin, E.C. Mol. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Signal transduction and bacterial conjugation: characterization of the role of ArcA in regulating conjugative transfer of the resistance plasmid R1. Strohmaier, H., Noiges, R., Kotschan, S., Sawers, G., Högenauer, G., Zechner, E.L., Koraimann, G. J. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. fexA, a novel Staphylococcus lentus gene encoding resistance to florfenicol and chloramphenicol. Kehrenberg, C., Schwarz, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of the global redox sensing/regulation networks on Escherichia coli and metabolic flux distribution based on C-13 labeling experiments. Zhu, J., Shalel-Levanon, S., Bennett, G., San, K.Y. Metab. Eng. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional citric acid cycle in an arcA mutant of Escherichia coli during growth with nitrate under anoxic conditions. Prohl, C., Wackwitz, B., Vlad, D., Unden, G. Arch. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Aerobic regulation of the sucABCD genes of Escherichia coli, which encode alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinyl coenzyme A synthetase: roles of ArcA, Fnr, and the upstream sdhCDAB promoter. Park, S.J., Chao, G., Gunsalus, R.P. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of the isofunctional genes ubiD and ubiX of the ubiquinone biosynthetic pathway of Escherichia coli. Zhang, H., Javor, G.T. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Global analysis of candidate genes important for fitness in a competitive biofilm using DNA-array-based transposon mapping. Junker, L.M., Peters, J.E., Hay, A.G. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of anaerobic arginine catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis by a protein of the Crp/Fnr family. Maghnouj, A., Abu-Bakr, A.A., Baumberg, S., Stalon, V., Vander Wauven, C. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of the arcA Mutation on the Expression of Flagella Genes in Escherichia coli. Kato, Y., Sugiura, M., Mizuno, T., Aiba, H. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Nitric oxide, nitrite, and Fnr regulation of hmp (flavohemoglobin) gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12. Poole, R.K., Anjum, M.F., Membrillo-Hernández, J., Kim, S.O., Hughes, M.N., Stewart, V. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. The requirement of ArcA and Fnr for peak expression of the cyd operon in Escherichia coli under microaerobic conditions. Fu, H.A., Iuchi, S., Lin, E.C. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Relationship of the Escherichia coli TrkA system of potassium ion uptake with the F0F1-ATPase under growth conditions without anaerobic or aerobic respiration. Trchounian, A., Ohanjanyan, Y., Bagramyan, K., Vardanian, V., Zakharyan, E., Vassilian, A., Davtian, M. Biosci. Rep. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Cloning and insertional inactivation of the dye (sfrA) gene, mutation of which affects sex factor F expression and dye sensitivity of Escherichia coli K-12. Buxton, R.S., Drury, L.S. J. Bacteriol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of ArcA and FNR on the expression of genes related to the oxygen regulation and the glycolysis pathway in Escherichia coli under microaerobic growth conditions. Shalel-Levanon, S., San, K.Y., Bennett, G.N. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2005) [Pubmed]
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