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Chemical Compound Review

Aquaflor     2,2-dichloro-N-[(1S,2R)-3- fluoro-1-hydroxy...

Synonyms: Aquafen, Nuflor, Florfenicol, florphenicol, PubChem13648, ...
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Disease relevance of Florfenicol


High impact information on Florfenicol


Chemical compound and disease context of Florfenicol


Biological context of Florfenicol


Anatomical context of Florfenicol


Associations of Florfenicol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Florfenicol

  • In pCCK381, combined resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol was based on the presence of a floR gene that showed 97.2-99.7% identity to so far known floR genes [26].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Northern slot blot analysis showed that mRNA expression of fnbA, fnbB, coa, emp and eap, coding for adhesins, was increased in the presence of 0.5 x MIC of florfenicol [27].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that in the bovine pathogen P. trehalosi, floR-mediated resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol was associated with a plasmid, which also carried functionally active genes for resistance to sulphonamides (sul2) and chloramphenicol (catA3) [28].
  • A multiplex PCR method was developed to simultaneously amplify four genes, florfenicol (flo(st)), virulence (spvC), invasion (invA), and integron (int) from S. typhimurium DT104 (ACSSuT-type) [29].
  • OBJECTIVES: A florfenicol-resistant Pasteurella trehalosi isolate from a calf was investigated for the presence and the location of the gene floR [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Florfenicol

  • Florfenicol concentrations in plasma were determined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection at a wavelength of 223 nm [3].
  • The anti-FloR1 antibody-based ELISA is a useful tool for the detection of florfenicol-resistant bacteria harboring the floR gene [30].
  • Forty-two of the 44 isolates for which florfenicol MICs were > or =16 microg/ml were positive via PCR for the flo gene [31].
  • Western blotting using the anti-FloR1 antibody showed specific binding of the antibody to the florfenicol-resistant FloR protein [30].
  • 3. The highest plasma concentrations of florfenicol were 3.82 and 3.20 micrograms/ml following single i.m. and oral administration, respectively [32].


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  2. Nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance mediated by IncC plasmid R55 is encoded by a floR gene variant. Cloeckaert, A., Baucheron, S., Chaslus-Dancla, E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in healthy pigs and in pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Liu, J., Fung, K.F., Chen, Z., Zeng, Z., Zhang, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Distribution of Florfenicol Resistance Genes fexA and cfr among Chloramphenicol-Resistant Staphylococcus Isolates. Kehrenberg, C., Schwarz, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. AcrAB-TolC directs efflux-mediated multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104. Baucheron, S., Tyler, S., Boyd, D., Mulvey, M.R., Chaslus-Dancla, E., Cloeckaert, A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular basis of bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol. Schwarz, S., Kehrenberg, C., Doublet, B., Cloeckaert, A. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Relationship between phenotypic and genotypic florfenicol resistance in Escherichia coli. Singer, R.S., Patterson, S.K., Meier, A.E., Gibson, J.K., Lee, H.L., Maddox, C.W. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance determinants specified by plasmids R26 and R55-1 in Escherichia coli K-12 do not confer high-level resistance to fluorinated analogs. Dorman, C.J., Foster, T.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Antimicrobial-resistant enteric bacteria from dairy cattle. Sawant, A.A., Hegde, N.V., Straley, B.A., Donaldson, S.C., Love, B.C., Knabel, S.J., Jayarao, B.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Antimicrobial resistance survey in a river receiving effluents from freshwater fish farms. Gordon, L., Giraud, E., Ganière, J.P., Armand, F., Bouju-Albert, A., de la Cotte, N., Mangion, C., Le Bris, H. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Evolution of chloramphenicol resistance, with emergence of cross-resistance to florfenicol, in bovine Salmonella Typhimurium strains implicates definitive phage type (DT) 104. Arcangioli, M.A., Leroy-Setrin, S., Martel, J.L., Chaslus-Dancla, E. J. Med. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. A new route to L-threo-3-[4-(methylthio)phenylserine], a key intermediate for the synthesis of antibiotics: recombinant low-specificity D-threonine aldolase-catalyzed stereospecific resolution. Liu, J.Q., Odani, M., Dairi, T., Itoh, N., Shimizu, S., Yamada, H. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Detection of florfenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from sick chickens. Keyes, K., Hudson, C., Maurer, J.J., Thayer, S., White, D.G., Lee, M.D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Occurrence of a Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104-like antibiotic resistance gene cluster including the floR gene in S. enterica serovar agona. Cloeckaert, A., Sidi Boumedine, K., Flaujac, G., Imberechts, H., D'Hooghe, I., Chaslus-Dancla, E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of variant Salmonella genomic island 1 multidrug resistance regions from serovars Typhimurium DT104 and Agona. Boyd, D., Cloeckaert, A., Chaslus-Dancla, E., Mulvey, M.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of a plasmid-borne chloramphenicol-florfenicol resistance gene in Staphylococcus sciuri. Schwarz, S., Werckenthin, C., Kehrenberg, C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of calves. de Craene, B.A., Deprez, P., D'Haese, E., Nelis, H.J., Van den Bossche, W., De Leenheer, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of vaccination prior to transit and administration of florfenicol at time of arrival in a feedlot on the health of transported calves and detection of Mannheimia haemolytica in nasal secretions. Frank, G.H., Briggs, R.E., Duff, G.C., Loan, R.W., Purdy, C.W. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Tissue concentrations and pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in male veal calves given repeated doses. Adams, P.E., Varma, K.J., Powers, T.E., Lamendola, J.F. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of florfenicol injection on the meat characteristics of the cervical muscles in cattle. Hawkins, L.L., Perino, L.J., Kennedy, G., Dikeman, M., Cole, D. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. A comparative study on the inhibitory actions of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol and some fluorinated derivatives. Cannon, M., Harford, S., Davies, J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Proposed MIC quality control guidelines for National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards susceptibility tests using seven veterinary antimicrobial agents: ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, penicillin G-novobiocin, pirlimycin, premafloxacin, and spectinomycin. Marshall, S.A., Jones, R.N., Wanger, A., Washington, J.A., Doern, G.V., Leber, A.L., Haugen, T.H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Old dogs that learn new tricks: modified antimicrobial agents that escape pre-existing resistance mechanisms. Schwarz, S., Kehrenberg, C. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Ecotoxicity of mixtures of antibiotics used in aquacultures. Christensen, A.M., Ingerslev, F., Baun, A. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Efficacy of tulathromycin compared with tilmicosin and florfenicol for the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease. Rooney, K.A., Nutsch, R.G., Skogerboe, T.L., Weigel, D.J., Gajewski, K., Kilgore, W.R. Vet. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Plasmid-borne florfenicol resistance in Pasteurella multocida. Kehrenberg, C., Schwarz, S. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Molecular basis of florfenicol-induced increase in adherence of Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman. Blickwede, M., Goethe, R., Wolz, C., Valentin-Weigand, P., Schwarz, S. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Plasmid-mediated florfenicol resistance in Pasteurella trehalosi. Kehrenberg, C., Meunier, D., Targant, H., Cloeckaert, A., Schwarz, S., Madec, J.Y. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Detection of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104 by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Khan, A.A., Nawaz, M.S., Khan, S.A., Cerniglia, C.E. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Influence of anti-FloR antibody on florfenicol accumulation in florfenicol-resistant Escherichia coli and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of florfenicol-resistant E. coli isolates. Wu, B., Xia, C., Du, X., Cao, X., Shen, J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization of chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance in Escherichia coli associated with bovine diarrhea. White, D.G., Hudson, C., Maurer, J.J., Ayers, S., Zhao, S., Lee, M.D., Bolton, L., Foley, T., Sherwood, J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Tissue concentrations and pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in broiler chickens. Afifi, N.A., Abo el-Sooud, K.A. Br. Poult. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
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