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Gene Review

RNA1  -  protein A

Flock house virus

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Disease relevance of RNA1

  • These results showed that RNA1 was required neither for virion assembly nor for maturation of provirions [1].
  • However, capsid protein synthesized in cis from replicating RNA2 packaged RNA2 efficiently in the presence and absence of RNA1 [2].
  • Flock House virus (FHV; Nodaviridae) is a positive-strand RNA virus that encapsidates a bipartite genome consisting of RNA1 and RNA2 [3].
  • Flock house virus is a small insect virus with a bipartite RNA genome consisting of RNA1 and RNA2 [4].
  • In Brome mosaic virus (BMV), genomic RNA1 (gB1) and RNA2 (gB2), encoding the replication factors, are packaged into two separate virions, whereas genomic RNA3 (gB3) and its subgenomic coat protein (CP) mRNA (sgB4) are copackaged into a third virion [5].

High impact information on RNA1

  • Hsp90 inhibitors also suppressed viral RNA and protein A accumulation in S2 cells expressing an FHV RNA replicon [6].
  • We investigated the role of the cellular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in viral RNA replication complex assembly and function using Flock House virus (FHV), an alphanodavirus whose RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, protein A, is essential for viral RNA replication complex assembly on mitochondrial outer membranes [6].
  • Long-distance base pairing in flock house virus RNA1 regulates subgenomic RNA3 synthesis and RNA2 replication [7].
  • Protease digestion and selective permeabilization after differential epitope tagging demonstrated that protein A was inserted into the outer mitochondrial membrane with the N terminus in the inner membrane space or matrix and that the C terminus was exposed to the cytoplasm [8].
  • Confocal immunofluorescence revealed that protein A localized to mitochondria in yeast, as in Drosophila cells, and that this mitochondrial localization was independent of viral RNA synthesis [8].

Biological context of RNA1

  • Transcription of these plasmids in cells recreated the replication of PaV RNA1 and RNA2, synthesis of subgenomic RNA3, and translation of viral proteins A and alpha [9].
  • However, RNA1 replication ceases ca. 3 days after transfection despite the presence of replication-competent RNA [10].
  • DNA-Directed expression of functional flock house virus RNA1 derivatives in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, heterologous gene expression, and selective effects on subgenomic mRNA synthesis [11].
  • The nodavirus flock house virus (FHV) has a bipartite, positive-sense, RNA genome that encodes the catalytic subunit of the RNA replicase and the viral capsid protein precursor on separate genomic segments (RNA1 and RNA2, respectively) [10].
  • RNA1 can replicate autonomously when transfected into permissive cells, allowing study of the kinetics of RNA1 replication in the absence of either RNA2 or capsid proteins [10].

Anatomical context of RNA1

  • AHNV RNA replication in the fish cell-line SSN-1 (derived from striped snakehead) was analysed by Northern blot analysis, which indicated that RNA3 was synthesised in large amounts (compared to RNA1) at an early point in time post-infection [12].

Associations of RNA1 with chemical compounds

  • We have cloned and sequenced RNA1 from the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus nodavirus (AHNV), and for the first time, the sequence of a betanodaviral subgenomic RNA3 has been determined [12].
  • Nycodenz gradient flotation and dissociation assays showed that protein A behaved as an integral membrane protein, a finding consistent with a predicted N-proximal transmembrane domain [8].
  • Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and virus-specific, actinomycin D-resistant bromo-UTP incorporation identified mitochondria as the intracellular site of protein A localization and viral RNA synthesis [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RNA1


  1. Use of recombinant baculoviruses in synthesis of morphologically distinct viruslike particles of flock house virus, a nodavirus. Schneemann, A., Dasgupta, R., Johnson, J.E., Rueckert, R.R. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Capsid protein synthesis from replicating RNA directs specific packaging of the genome of a multipartite, positive-strand RNA virus. Venter, P.A., Krishna, N.K., Schneemann, A. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Assembly of two independent populations of flock house virus particles with distinct RNA packaging characteristics in the same cell. Venter, P.A., Schneemann, A. J. Virol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Flock house virus: down-regulation of subgenomic RNA3 synthesis does not involve coat protein and is targeted to synthesis of its positive strand. Zhong, W., Rueckert, R.R. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Packaging of brome mosaic virus subgenomic RNA is functionally coupled to replication-dependent transcription and translation of coat protein. Annamalai, P., Rao, A.L. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. The cellular chaperone heat shock protein 90 facilitates Flock House virus RNA replication in Drosophila cells. Kampmueller, K.M., Miller, D.J. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Long-distance base pairing in flock house virus RNA1 regulates subgenomic RNA3 synthesis and RNA2 replication. Lindenbach, B.D., Sgro, J.Y., Ahlquist, P. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Flock house virus RNA polymerase is a transmembrane protein with amino-terminal sequences sufficient for mitochondrial localization and membrane insertion. Miller, D.J., Ahlquist, P. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization and construction of functional cDNA clones of Pariacoto virus, the first Alphanodavirus isolated outside Australasia. Johnson, K.N., Zeddam, J.L., Ball, L.A. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Induction and maintenance of autonomous flock house virus RNA1 replication. Johnson, K.L., Ball, L.A. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. DNA-Directed expression of functional flock house virus RNA1 derivatives in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, heterologous gene expression, and selective effects on subgenomic mRNA synthesis. Price, B.D., Roeder, M., Ahlquist, P. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Complete sequence of RNA1 and subgenomic RNA3 of Atlantic halibut nodavirus (AHNV). Sommerset, I., Nerland, A.H. Dis. Aquat. Org. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Flock house virus RNA replicates on outer mitochondrial membranes in Drosophila cells. Miller, D.J., Schwartz, M.D., Ahlquist, P. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Isolation and RNA1 nucleotide sequence determination of a new insect nodavirus from Pieris rapae larvae in Wuhan city, China. Liu, C., Zhang, J., Yi, F., Wang, J., Wang, X., Jiang, H., Xu, J., Hu, Y. Virus Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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