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Disease relevance of Maduromycosis

  • Clinical features in our five patients, which are not noted in published reports of sinus mycetoma, included frequent atopy, nasal polyps, calcification within the sinus on computed tomography, and an excellent response to surgical treatment [1].
  • Itraconazole and voriconazole have a broad range of activity against phylogenetically similar agents of hyalohyphomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma [2].
  • We previously identified three immunodominant antigens obtained from a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and recognized by sera from mycetoma patients (M. C. Salinas-Carmona, L. Vera, O. Welsh, and M. Rodríguez, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 276:390-397, 1992) [3].
  • The granules of mycetoma and Mycobacterium leprae also stained positively with the S-100 stain [4].

High impact information on Maduromycosis

  • Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, and amikacin, which have been used to treat patients, were tested in an experimental model of mycetoma in BALB/c mice in order to validate the in vitro results [5].
  • Furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed increased concentrations of iron and manganese in mycetoma compared with their concentrations in bacterially infected mucus [6].
  • Both immunoglobulin and C3 were found in the actinomycotic granules that characterize the mycetoma and in the surrounding inflammatory zones, in which plasma cells were also present [7].
  • CONCLUSIONS: For our patients with renal mycetoma without complete obstruction (patients continued to have urine output) surgical intervention was rarely necessary, the rate of sonographic improvement neither correlated with clinical course nor necessitated longer therapy, and long-term creatinine levels were normal [8].
  • A black man with subcutaneous mycetomas caused by Microsporum audouinii was treated by a combination of griseofulvin, 18.5 g of amphotericin B, excisional surgery, and later, ketoconazole, resulting in a satisfactory arrest or cure of the clinical illness [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Maduromycosis


Anatomical context of Maduromycosis


Gene context of Maduromycosis

  • RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were categorized in the likely AFRS group, 12 with eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis, 4 with sinus mycetoma, and 18 with CRS from other causes [16].
  • Sera from patients with mycetoma secondary to N. brasiliensis (n = 6) or Actinomadura madurae (n = 2) and 10 hospitalized controls were tested [17].
  • In a patient with a suspected mycetoma, evaluation should include (1) elicitation of a history of trauma, (2) determination of the presence of the clinical triad of swelling, sinus tracts, and extrusion of grains, (3) roentgenographic examination, (4) examination of the grains, (5) histopathologic study, and (6) culture [18].
  • Anaemia, leucocytosis, raised ESR, abnormal radiological shadows and mycetoma in healed cavity were also noted in significant number in fungus positive cases [19].
  • Eumycotic mycetoma caused by Cladophialophora bantiana in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Maduromycosis


  1. Criteria for the diagnosis of sinus mycetoma. deShazo, R.D., O'Brien, M., Chapin, K., Soto-Aguilar, M., Swain, R., Lyons, M., Bryars, W.C., Alsip, S. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. In vitro testing of susceptibilities of filamentous ascomycetes to voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B, with consideration of phylogenetic implications. McGinnis, M.R., Pasarell, L. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of Nocardia brasiliensis and clinical correlation with mycetoma infections. Salinas-Carmona, M.C., Welsh, O., Casillas, S.M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. An evaluation of the S-100 stain in the histological diagnosis of tuberculoid leprosy and other granulomatous dermatoses. Singh, N., Arora, V.K., Ramam, M., Tickoo, S.K., Bhatia, A. Int. J. Lepr. Other Mycobact. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. In vitro and in vivo activities of antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis. Gomez-Flores, A., Welsh, O., Said-Fernández, S., Lozano-Garza, G., Tavarez-Alejandro, R.E., Vera-Cabrera, L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Fungal sinusitis: diagnosis with CT and MR imaging. Zinreich, S.J., Kennedy, D.W., Malat, J., Curtin, H.D., Epstein, J.I., Huff, L.C., Kumar, A.J., Johns, M.E., Rosenbaum, A.E. Radiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Immunoglobulin and complement in tissues of mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis. Conde, C., Mancilla, R., Fresan, M., Ortiz-Ortiz, L. Infect. Immun. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Candidal mycetoma in the neonatal kidney. Benjamin, D.K., Fisher, R.G., McKinney, R.E., Benjamin, D.K. Pediatrics (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Five-year follow-up of a man with subcutaneous mycetomas caused by Microsporum audouinii. West, B.C. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. First report of mycetoma caused by Arthrographis kalrae: successful treatment with itraconazole. Degavre, B., Joujoux, J.M., Dandurand, M., Guillot, B. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Letter: Nocardia brasiliensis mycetoma: treatment with co-trimoxazole. Maibach, H.I., Gorham, W., Aly, R. Archives of dermatology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Treatment of nocardial mycetoma with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. Nitidandhaprabhas, P., Sittapairochana, D. Archives of dermatology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Leucocyte chemotaxis to mycetoma agents--the effect of the antifungal drugs griseofulvin and ketoconazole. Yousif, M.A., Hay, R.J. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Amikacin alone and in combination with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of actinomycotic mycetoma. Welsh, O., Sauceda, E., Gonzalez, J., Ocampo, J. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Lymphocyte subsets, macrophages and Langerhans cells in actinomycetoma and eumycetoma tissue reaction. Guimarães, C.C., Castro, L.G., Sotto, M.N. Acta Trop. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: an attempt to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. Saravanan, K., Panda, N.K., Chakrabarti, A., Das, A., Bapuraj, R.J. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of a common immunodominant protein in culture filtrates of three Nocardia species and use in etiologic diagnosis of mycetoma. Angeles, A.M., Sugar, A.M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Diagnosis and treatment of mycetoma. Palestine, R.F., Rogers, R.S. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. A clinico-radiological study of secondary mycoses in pulmonary tuberculosis. Jain, S.K., Agrawal, R.L., Pandey, R.C., Agrawal, M., Sharma, S. Indian journal of medical sciences. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Eumycotic mycetoma caused by Cladophialophora bantiana in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Werlinger, K.D., Yen Moore, A. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Antibody response to Nocardia brasiliensis antigens in man. Salinas-Carmona, M.C., Vera, L., Welsh, O., Rodríguez, M. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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