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Chemical Compound Review

Carbafos     diethyl2- dimethoxyphosphinothioylsulfan yl...

Synonyms: Carbetox, Carbofos, Celthion, Karbofos, Prioderm, ...
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Disease relevance of malathion


Psychiatry related information on malathion

  • Animals given Malathion (an organophosphate pesticide) had a higher mammary tumor incidence, shortened latency period, more tumors per rat, and more actively growing tumors than did the control group (DMBA only) [6].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Formal urological education of United States medical students has continued to erode during the last decade, but the impact of this trend on student learning and career choice is not clear [7].
  • PURPOSE: Formal studies of the genetics of enuresis have been performed since the 1930s and molecular genetics since 1995, both highlighting the importance of hereditary factors in the etiology of nocturnal enuresis [8].
  • For the brain ChE and motor activity, there was no difference between the full (5-OP mixture) and reduced (4-OP mixture) rays, indicating that malathion did not influence the non-additivity [9].
  • Following exposure, fish from each group were sacrificed and their kidneys (primary organ of leukopoiesis in fish and equivalent to mammalian bone marrow) were used to provide cells for assessing any malathion-induced effects upon nonspecific and acquired immune defense mechanisms [10].

High impact information on malathion

  • Malathion not detected in breast milk of women living in aerial spraying areas [11].
  • Furthermore, PCR analysis of pinned specimens of Australasian L. cuprina collected before the release of organophosphate insecticides reveals no cases of the diazinon-resistance change but several cases of those associated with malathion resistance [12].
  • Genetics of acheiropodia (the handless and footless families of Brazil). VI. Formal genetic analysis [13].
  • Eserine, malathion, nicotine and pyrethrum had no inhibitory effect up to 0.5 g/liter [14].
  • We have used a cell cloning assay to study the genotoxicity of in vitro exposure of human T lymphocytes to malathion [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of malathion


Biological context of malathion


Anatomical context of malathion


Associations of malathion with other chemical compounds


Gene context of malathion


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of malathion


  1. Malathion exposure associated with acute renal failure. Albright, R.K., Kram, B.W., White, R.P. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Dependence on chain length of antitumor activity of (1 leads to 3)-beta-D-glucan from Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes, IFO 13140, and its acid-degraded products. Sasaki, T., Abiko, N., Sugino, Y., Nitta, K. Cancer Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Induction of tumoricidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes by a linear beta-1,3-D-glucan and other immunomodulators in murine cells. Morikawa, K., Takeda, R., Yamazaki, M., Mizuno, D. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Opsoclonus in organophosphate poisoning. Pullicino, P., Aquilina, J. Arch. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Malathion exposure and the incidence of cancer in the agricultural health study. Bonner, M.R., Coble, J., Blair, A., Beane Freeman, L.E., Hoppin, J.A., Sandler, D.P., Alavanja, M.C. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Protection by 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) against mammary tumors and leukemia during prolonged feeding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene to female rats. Silinskas, K.C., Okey, A.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. The continued decline of formal urological education of medical students in the United States: does it matter? Kerfoot, B.P., Masser, B.A., Dewolf, W.C. J. Urol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. The genetics of enuresis: a review. von Gontard, A., Schaumburg, H., Hollmann, E., Eiberg, H., Rittig, S. J. Urol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Neurotoxicological and statistical analyses of a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides using a ray design. Moser, V.C., Casey, M., Hamm, A., Carter, W.H., Simmons, J.E., Gennings, C. Toxicol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Mammalian immunoassays for predicting the toxicity of malathion in a laboratory fish model. Beaman, J.R., Finch, R., Gardner, H., Hoffmann, F., Rosencrance, A., Zelikoff, J.T. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Malathion not detected in breast milk of women living in aerial spraying areas. Lönnerdal, B., Asquith, M.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Amplification of DNA from preserved specimens shows blowflies were preadapted for the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance. Hartley, C.J., Newcomb, R.D., Russell, R.J., Yong, C.G., Stevens, J.R., Yeates, D.K., La Salle, J., Oakeshott, J.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Genetics of acheiropodia (the handless and footless families of Brazil). VI. Formal genetic analysis. Freire-Maia, A., Freire-Maia, N., Morton, N.E., Azevêdo, E.S., Quelce-Salgado, A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1975) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of monocyte esterase activity by organophosphate insecticides. Lee, M.J., Waters, H.C. Blood (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Increased frequency of specific genomic deletions resulting from in vitro malathion exposure. Pluth, J.M., Nicklas, J.A., O'Neill, J.P., Albertini, R.J. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Hydrogen peroxide as a tumoricidal mediator of murine polymorphonuclear leukocytes induced by a linear beta-1,3-D-glucan and some other immunomodulators. Morikawa, K., Kamegaya, S., Yamazaki, M., Mizuno, D. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Studies on L-ascorbic acid metabolism in rats under chronic toxicity due to organophosphorus insecticides: effects of supplementation of L-ascorbic acid in high doses. Chakraborty, D., Bhattacharyya, A., Majumdar, K., Chatterjee, K., Chatterjee, S., Sen, A., Chatterjee, G.C. J. Nutr. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of metabolic activation, covalent binding, and glutathione depletion in pulmonary toxicity produced by an impurity of malathion. Imamura, T., Hasegawa, L. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. The effects of differential induction of cytochrome P-450, carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase activities on malathion toxicity in mice. Ketterman, A.J., Pond, S.M., Becker, C.E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Susceptibility of black fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) to lawn-care insecticides individually and as mixtures. Overmyer, J.P., Armbrust, K.L., Noblet, R. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Nonoxidative enzymes in the metabolism of insecticides. Ahmad, S., Forgash, A.J. Drug Metab. Rev. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Reproductive outcomes in relation to malathion spraying in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1981-1982. Thomas, D.C., Petitti, D.B., Goldhaber, M., Swan, S.H., Rappaport, E.B., Hertz-Picciotto, I. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Potential uses of biomonitoring data: a case study using the organophosphorus pesticides chlorpyrifos and malathion. Barr, D.B., Angerer, J. Environ. Health Perspect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of malathion on the genetic material of human lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Walter, Z., Czajkowska, A., Lipecka, K. Hum. Genet. (1980) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential gene expression in normal human mammary epithelial cells treated with malathion monitored by DNA microarrays. Gwinn, M.R., Whipkey, D.L., Tennant, L.B., Weston, A. Environ. Health Perspect. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Calcium-dependent and -independent tumoricidal activities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes induced by a linear beta-1,3-D-glucan and phorbol myristate acetate in mice. Morikawa, K., Noguchi, T., Yamazaki, M., Mizuno, D. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Phenobarbital pretreatment protects against morphologic changes in rat bronchiolar epithelium caused by an impurity of malathion. Gandy, J., Talbot, P., Fukuto, T.R., Imamura, T. Am. J. Pathol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of malathion on nucleic acid synthesis in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes. Czajkowska, A., Walter, Z. Hum. Genet. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Chemical predictors of wheeze among farmer pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Hoppin, J.A., Umbach, D.M., London, S.J., Alavanja, M.C., Sandler, D.P. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for quantifying urinary metabolites of atrazine, malathion, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Beeson, M.D., Driskell, W.J., Barr, D.B. Anal. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Evidence for double resistance to permethrin and malathion in head lice. Downs, A.M., Stafford, K.A., Harvey, I., Coles, G.C. Br. J. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Cholinesterase and carboxylesterase inhibition by dichlorvos and interactions with malathion and triorthotolyl phosphate. Cohen, S.D., Ehrich, M. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  33. Malathion bioactivation in the human liver: the contribution of different cytochrome p450 isoforms. Buratti, F.M., D'Aniello, A., Volpe, M.T., Meneguz, A., Testai, E. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus following acute exposure to malathion and/or zinc chloride. Brocardo, P.S., Pandolfo, P., Takahashi, R.N., Rodrigues, A.L., Dafre, A.L. Toxicology (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of malathion on apoptosis of murine L929 fibroblasts: a possible mechanism for toxicity in low dose exposure. Masoud, L., Vijayasarathy, C., Fernandez-Cabezudo, M., Petroianu, G., Saleh, A.M. Toxicology (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Biochemical evidence for free radical-induced lipid peroxidation as a mechanism for subchronic toxicity of malathion in blood and liver of rats. Akhgari, M., Abdollahi, M., Kebryaeezadeh, A., Hosseini, R., Sabzevari, O. Human & experimental toxicology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Malathion for treatment of Pediculus humanus var capitis infestation. Taplin, D., Castillero, P.M., Spiegel, J., Mercer, S., Rivera, A.A., Schachner, L. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  38. When and how to study the carotid arteries. Feussner, J.R., Matchar, D.B. Ann. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  39. Prospective analysis of a scoring system to predict choledocholithiasis. Menezes, N., Marson, L.P., debeaux, A.C., Muir, I.M., Auld, C.D. The British journal of surgery. (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. Genotoxic effects of malathion: an organophosphorus insecticide, using three mammalian bioassays in vivo. Giri, S., Prasad, S.B., Giri, A., Sharma, G.D. Mutat. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Effects of oral administration of malathion on the course of disease in MRL-lpr mice. Rodgers, K.E. J. Autoimmun. (1997) [Pubmed]
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