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MeSH Review

Contingent Negative Variation

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Disease relevance of Contingent Negative Variation


Psychiatry related information on Contingent Negative Variation

  • During hypoglycaemia, ERP measures of selective attention (selection negativity), response choice (lateralized readiness potential) and reaction time were delayed compared with baseline performance [6].
  • Studies using the lateralized readiness potential (LRP; an index of hand-specific motor preparation), suggest that the motor system can be activated on the basis of partial information, providing support for a parallel view of the human information processing system [7].
  • OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated whether preprogramming (Bereitschaftspotential, BP) and control activity (skilled performance positivity, SPP) in a bimanual, sequential skilled performance task (SPT) is sensitive to L-dopa administration in non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients [8].
  • Source errors were not related to performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a psychometric index of frontal function, or to the initial orienting response of the contingent negative variation (CNV), a frontally based electrophysiological measure, even though these "frontal" measures were reliably related to each other [9].
  • Using event-related potential (ERP) measures of these constructs, we find that only hemisphericity accounts for individual differences in reading skill among our 15-year-old good readers, while the frontally generated Contingent Negative Variation attentional ERP accounts for reading skill differences among the poor readers [10].

High impact information on Contingent Negative Variation

  • The goal of this study was to contribute further to this discussion by taking advantage of the increased spatial information of a whole-scalp magnetoencephalography (MEG) system enabling us to record the magnetic equivalent of the Bereitschaftspotential 1, the Bereitschaftsfeld 1 (BF 1) or readiness field 1 [11].
  • To investigate the pathophysiology of dystonia, we recorded contingent negative variation (CNV) in 12 patients with cervical dystonia and in 12 age-matched normal subjects [12].
  • In support of serial models of speech production, both the lateralized readiness potential, or LRP (related to response preparation), and the N200 (related to response inhibition) measures indicated that conceptual processing began approximately 80 msec earlier than syntactic processing [13].
  • Finally, the slow negativity (contingent negative variation/readiness potential) that preceded the target in the "no cue" condition was absent in ADHD patients [14].
  • Adinazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine that has an action similar to antidepressants in several pharmacological tests, was compared with amitriptyline and diazepam in endogenous depressive inpatients exhibiting dexamethasone suppression test non-suppression and/or abnormal contingent negative variation [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Contingent Negative Variation


Biological context of Contingent Negative Variation


Anatomical context of Contingent Negative Variation


Associations of Contingent Negative Variation with chemical compounds


Gene context of Contingent Negative Variation

  • The present set of experiments investigated the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) preceding voluntary bimanual sequential simple (task 1) and complex movements (task 2) in supplementary/cingulate and primary motor areas (SCMA, MIs) using 64-channel direct current electroencephalography analysis in 16 right-handed healthy subjects [24].
  • N100, P200, and P300 to the CSs revealed that psychopaths were not deficient in information processing and showed even better anticipatory responding than the HC group indicated by the terminal contingent negative variation (tCNV), that lacked, however, CS+ and CS- differentiation [25].
  • Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis and abnormal contingent negative variation. A case report [26].
  • Using a choice/Nogo task, the utility of the partial information was varied by manipulating the proportion of Go relative to Nogo signals, and preliminary response preparation was indexed by the degree of lateralized readiness potential (LRP) activity on Nogo trials [27].
  • Sensorimotor expectancy processes to painful stimulation and motor go/no-go demands were indexed over primary sensorimotor and midline cortical areas by contingent negative variation (CNV) [28].


  1. Contingent negative variation and efficacy of beta-blocking agents in migraine. Schoenen, J., Maertens de Noordhout, A., Timsit-Berthier, M., Timsit, M. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Perimenstrual migraine: effect of Estraderm TTS and the value of contingent negative variation and exteroceptive temporalis muscle suppression test. Smits, M.G., van der Meer, Y.G., Pfeil, J.P., Rijnierse, J.J., Vos, A.J. Headache. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Abnormal sensorimotor integration in writer's cramp: study of contingent negative variation. Ikeda, A., Shibasaki, H., Kaji, R., Terada, K., Nagamine, T., Honda, M., Hamano, T., Kimura, J. Mov. Disord. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Pilot study of computerised differentiation of Huntington's disease, schizophrenic, and Parkinson's disease patients using the contingent negative variation. Jervis, B.W., Saatchi, M.R., Allen, E.M., Hudson, N.R., Oke, S., Grimsley, M. Medical & biological engineering & computing. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. A possible masking effect of tinnitus. Evaluation of CNV audiometry. Hosoda, Y., Ushiro, K., Doi, T., Kumazawa, T. Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Differentiation of hypoglycaemia induced cognitive impairments. An electrophysiological approach. Smid, H.G., Trümper, B.G., Pottag, G., Wagner, K., Lobmann, R., Scheich, H., Lehnert, H., Heinze, H.J. Brain (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence of partial response activation in a memory-search task. Shin, E., Fabiani, M., Gratton, G. Brain research. Cognitive brain research. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. L-dopa effects on preprogramming and control activity in a skilled motor act in Parkinson's disease. Fattapposta, F., Pierelli, F., My, F., Mostarda, M., Del Monte, S., Parisi, L., Serrao, M., Morocutti, A., Amabile, G. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Source monitoring during name recognition in older adults: psychometric and electrophysiological correlates. Dywan, J., Segalowitz, S.J., Williamson, L. Psychology and aging. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Lateral versus frontal ERP predictors of reading skill. Segalowitz, S.J., Wagner, W.J., Menna, R. Brain and cognition. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Supplementary motor area activation preceding voluntary movement is detectable with a whole-scalp magnetoencephalography system. Erdler, M., Beisteiner, R., Mayer, D., Kaindl, T., Edward, V., Windischberger, C., Lindinger, G., Deecke, L. Neuroimage (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Physiological study of cervical dystonia. Task-specific abnormality in contingent negative variation. Kaji, R., Ikeda, A., Ikeda, T., Kubori, T., Mezaki, T., Kohara, N., Kanda, M., Nagamine, T., Honda, M., Rothwell, J.C. Brain (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. An electrophysiological analysis of the time course of conceptual and syntactic encoding during tacit picture naming. Schmitt, B.M., Schiltz, K., Zaake, W., Kutas, M., Münte, T.F. Journal of cognitive neuroscience. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Attention shifts and anticipatory mechanisms in hyperactive children: an ERP study using the Posner paradigm. Perchet, C., Revol, O., Fourneret, P., Mauguière, F., Garcia-Larrea, L. Biol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparison of adinazolam, amitriptyline, and diazepam in endogenous depressive inpatients exhibiting DST nonsuppression or abnormal contingent negative variation. Ansseau, M., Devoitille, J.M., Papart, P., Vanbrabant, E., Mantanus, H., Timsit-Berthier, M. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Methadone effects on brain functioning and type A and B CNV shapes. Tecce, J.J., Cole, J.O., Mayer, J., Lewis, D.C. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Excessive daytime sleepiness and the pathophysiology of narcolepsy-cataplexy: a laboratory perspective. Broughton, R., Valley, V., Aguirre, M., Roberts, J., Suwalski, W., Dunham, W. Sleep. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Linear estimation discriminates midline sources and a motor cortex contribution to the readiness potential. Knösche, T., Praamstra, P., Stegeman, D., Peters, M. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Beta blockers and the central nervous system. Schoenen, J. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. The generation of cortical slow potentials in the rat anaesthetised with urethane and their modification by nicotine. Ebenezer, I.S. Neuropharmacology (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. EEG effects of physostigmine and choline chloride in humans. Pfefferbaum, A., Davis, K.L., Coulter, C.L., Mohs, R.C., Tinklenberg, J.R., Kopell, B.S. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Reduced activation of midline frontal areas in human elderly subjects: a contingent negative variation study. Dirnberger, G., Lalouschek, W., Lindinger, G., Egkher, A., Deecke, L., Lang, W. Neurosci. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Biphasic dose-related responses of the CNV (contingent negative variation) to I.V. nicotine in man. Ashton, H., Marsh, V.R., Millman, J.E., Rawlins, M.D., Telford, R., Thompson, J.W. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. High resolution DC-EEG mapping of the Bereitschaftspotential preceding simple or complex bimanual sequential finger movement. Cui, R.Q., Huter, D., Egkher, A., Lang, W., Lindinger, G., Deecke, L. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Aversive Pavlovian conditioning in psychopaths: peripheral and central correlates. Flor, H., Birbaumer, N., Hermann, C., Ziegler, S., Patrick, C.J. Psychophysiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis and abnormal contingent negative variation. A case report. Franssen, H., Fortgens, C., Wattendorff, A.R., van Woerkom, T.C. Arch. Neurol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. The usefulness of partial information: effects of go probability in the choice/Nogo task. Low, K.A., Miller, J. Psychophysiology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Cortical sensorimotor interactions during the expectancy of a go/no-go task: effects of painful stimuli. Babiloni, C., Brancucci, A., Arendt-Nielsen, L., Del Percio, C., Babiloni, F., Pascual-Marqui, R.D., Sabbatini, G., Rossini, P.M., Chen, A.C. Behav. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
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