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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Granuloma


Psychiatry related information on Granuloma


High impact information on Granuloma

  • Moreover, culture supernatants from activated gamma delta T lymphocytes induce adhesion and aggregation of bone-marrow monocytes in the presence of granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (CSF), suggesting that products of gamma delta-bearing T cells may play a role in the immune response, possibly by stimulating granuloma formation [8].
  • In humans, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) receptor deficiency leads to a predisposition to mycobacterial infections and impairs the formation of mature granulomas [9].
  • Thus, IL-12-dependent IFN-gamma secretion in humans seems essential in the control of mycobacterial infections, despite the formation of mature granulomas due to IL-12-independent IFN-gamma secretion [9].
  • When two new steroids, methyl prednisolonate and methyl 20-dihydroprednisolonate, were applied locally their anti-inflammatory activities were nearly equivalent to those of the parent compound prednisolone in the cotton pellet granuloma bioassay [10].
  • Using intestinal parasite infection and a pulmonary granuloma model, we demonstrate cryptic roles for IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 in these responses [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Granuloma

  • WSX-1(-/-) mice also showed poorly differentiated granulomas with dispersed accumulations of mononuclear cells when infected with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) [12].
  • At 10 1/2 months, polytef granulomas were found at all injection sites and some sites of distant migration [13].
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with liver and bone marrow inflammation characterized by granulomas with eosinophilic infiltration following intake of chlorpropamide [4].
  • Daily subcutaneous treatment of mice with 0.5 mg of hydrocortisone beginning simultaneously with pristane injection prevents the increase in the peritoneal cell population, granuloma formation, d the production of a conditoned environment [14].
  • Supernates from the cultured granuloma cells contain factor(s) which induce the proliferation of thymocytes; the release of such factors by the cells is stimulated by lipopolysaccharide [15].

Biological context of Granuloma


Anatomical context of Granuloma


Gene context of Granuloma

  • In parallel, the livers of IFN-gamma R0/0 mice showed a reduction in the formation of characteristic granulomas at 2 wk after inoculation [24].
  • Using a pulmonary granuloma model, induced with Schistosoma mansoni eggs, we demonstrate that although eosinophil infiltration, immunoglobulin E, and IL-5 production are reduced in the IL-4-deficient mice and IL-13-deficient mice, they are abolished only in the combined absence of both cytokines [25].
  • IL-1 beta and IL-1ra were produced by submucosal granulomas and correlated with inflammation [26].
  • Remarkably, CSD granulomas in vivo contain CXCL13-producing DCs [27].
  • Inflammation, as measured by granuloma size, also increased significantly in the absence of P-selectin [28].
  • Collectively, our data provide what we believe are novel insights into the involvement of F4/80+ DC-like cells in intestinal granuloma formation and demonstrate the role of host (IL-4 and IgG) and environmental (enteric flora) factors that regulate this function [29].
  • We conclude that IFN-gamma causes a dysbalance between angiostatic and angiogenic mediators and a concomitant reduction in granuloma vascularization, but that CXCR3-targeted chemokines are not sufficient to induce granuloma necrosis in a mouse model of mycobacteria-induced immunopathology [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Granuloma


  1. Pulmonary sarcoidosis: a disorder mediated by excess helper T-lymphocyte activity at sites of disease activity. Hunninghake, G.W., Crystal, R.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Mouse model of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited defect in phagocyte superoxide production. Pollock, J.D., Williams, D.A., Gifford, M.A., Li, L.L., Du, X., Fisherman, J., Orkin, S.H., Doerschuk, C.M., Dinauer, M.C. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Tumour necrosis factor alpha restores granulomas and induces parasite egg-laying in schistosome-infected SCID mice. Amiri, P., Locksley, R.M., Parslow, T.G., Sadick, M., Rector, E., Ritter, D., McKerrow, J.H. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Chlorpropamide-induced granulomas. A probable hypersensitivity reaction in liver and bone marrow. Rigberg, L.A., Robinson, M.J., Espiritu, C.R. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Dormancy phenotype displayed by extracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis within artificial granulomas in mice. Karakousis, P.C., Yoshimatsu, T., Lamichhane, G., Woolwine, S.C., Nuermberger, E.L., Grosset, J., Bishai, W.R. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of chronic alcohol intake on hepatic fibrosis and granulomas in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Orrego, H., Israel, Y., Crossley, I.R., Mahmoud, A.A., Peters, P.A., Varghese, G., Wanless, I.R. Hepatology (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Thorotrast and the liver--revisited. Srinivasan, R., Dean, H.A. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Lymphocytes bearing antigen-specific gamma delta T-cell receptors accumulate in human infectious disease lesions. Modlin, R.L., Pirmez, C., Hofman, F.M., Torigian, V., Uyemura, K., Rea, T.H., Bloom, B.R., Brenner, M.B. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Impairment of mycobacterial immunity in human interleukin-12 receptor deficiency. Altare, F., Durandy, A., Lammas, D., Emile, J.F., Lamhamedi, S., Le Deist, F., Drysdale, P., Jouanguy, E., Döffinger, R., Bernaudin, F., Jeppsson, O., Gollob, J.A., Meinl, E., Segal, A.W., Fischer, A., Kumararatne, D., Casanova, J.L. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Anti-inflammatory steroids without pituitary-adrenal suppression. Lee, H.J., Soliman, M.R. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. IL-4 induces characteristic Th2 responses even in the combined absence of IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13. Fallon, P.G., Jolin, H.E., Smith, P., Emson, C.L., Townsend, M.J., Fallon, R., Smith, P., McKenzie, A.N. Immunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. WSX-1 is required for the initiation of Th1 responses and resistance to L. major infection. Yoshida, H., Hamano, S., Senaldi, G., Covey, T., Faggioni, R., Mu, S., Xia, M., Wakeham, A.C., Nishina, H., Potter, J., Saris, C.J., Mak, T.W. Immunity (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Migration and granulomatous reaction after periurethral injection of polytef (Teflon). Malizia, A.A., Reiman, H.M., Myers, R.P., Sande, J.R., Barham, S.S., Benson, R.C., Dewanjee, M.K., Utz, W.J. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. The requirement of an adherent cell substratum for the growth of developing plasmacytoma cells in vivo. Cancro, M., Potter, M. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Mononuclear phagocytes from carrageenan-induce granulomas. Isolation, cultivation, and characterization. Bonney, R.J., Gery, I., Lin, T.Y., Meyenhofer, M.F., Acevedo, W., Davies, P. J. Exp. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Pivotal role of dendritic cell-derived CXCL10 in the retention of T helper cell 1 lymphocytes in secondary lymph nodes. Yoneyama, H., Narumi, S., Zhang, Y., Murai, M., Baggiolini, M., Lanzavecchia, A., Ichida, T., Asakura, H., Matsushima, K. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. IL-6 transgenic mouse model for extraosseous plasmacytoma. Kovalchuk, A.L., Kim, J.S., Park, S.S., Coleman, A.E., Ward, J.M., Morse, H.C., Kishimoto, T., Potter, M., Janz, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Midcycle administration of a progesterone synthesis inhibitor prevents ovulation in primates. Hibbert, M.L., Stouffer, R.L., Wolf, D.P., Zelinski-Wooten, M.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Lethal granuloma disintegration in mycobacteria-infected TNFRp55-/- mice is dependent on T cells and IL-12. Ehlers, S., Kutsch, S., Ehlers, E.M., Benini, J., Pfeffer, K. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. T1/ST2-deficient mice demonstrate the importance of T1/ST2 in developing primary T helper cell type 2 responses. Townsend, M.J., Fallon, P.G., Matthews, D.J., Jolin, H.E., McKenzie, A.N. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Endogenous interleukin 12 (IL-12) regulates granuloma formation induced by eggs of Schistosoma mansoni and exogenous IL-12 both inhibits and prophylactically immunizes against egg pathology. Wynn, T.A., Eltoum, I., Oswald, I.P., Cheever, A.W., Sher, A. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of SQ 14225, an inhibitor of angiotensin I-converting enzyme, on the granulomatous response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs in mice. Weinstock, J.V., Ehrinpreis, M.N., Boros, D.L., Gee, J.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Crohn's disease and the NOD2 gene: a role for paneth cells. Lala, S., Ogura, Y., Osborne, C., Hor, S.Y., Bromfield, A., Davies, S., Ogunbiyi, O., Nuñez, G., Keshav, S. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Mice that lack the interferon-gamma receptor have profoundly altered responses to infection with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and subsequent challenge with lipopolysaccharide. Kamijo, R., Le, J., Shapiro, D., Havell, E.A., Huang, S., Aguet, M., Bosland, M., Vilcek, J. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Simultaneous disruption of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 defines individual roles in T helper cell type 2-mediated responses. McKenzie, G.J., Fallon, P.G., Emson, C.L., Grencis, R.K., McKenzie, A.N. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Tissue interleukin 1 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist expression in enterocolitis in resistant and susceptible rats. McCall, R.D., Haskill, S., Zimmermann, E.M., Lund, P.K., Thompson, R.C., Sartor, R.B. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of dendritic cell-derived CXCL13 in the pathogenesis of Bartonella henselae B-rich granuloma. Vermi, W., Facchetti, F., Riboldi, E., Heine, H., Scutera, S., Stornello, S., Ravarino, D., Cappello, P., Giovarelli, M., Badolato, R., Zucca, M., Gentili, F., Chilosi, M., Doglioni, C., Ponzi, A.N., Sozzani, S., Musso, T. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. P-selectin suppresses hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in mice by regulating interferon gamma and the IL-13 decoy receptor. Wynn, T.A., Hesse, M., Sandler, N.G., Kaviratne, M., Hoffmann, K.F., Chiaramonte, M.G., Reiman, R., Cheever, A.W., Sypek, J.P., Mentink-Kane, M.M. Hepatology (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Dependence of intestinal granuloma formation on unique myeloid DC-like cells. Mizoguchi, A., Ogawa, A., Takedatsu, H., Sugimoto, K., Shimomura, Y., Shirane, K., Nagahama, K., Nagaishi, T., Mizoguchi, E., Blumberg, R.S., Bhan, A.K. J. Clin. Invest. (2007) [Pubmed]
  30. Interferon-gamma-dependent mechanisms of mycobacteria-induced pulmonary immunopathology: the role of angiostasis and CXCR3-targeted chemokines for granuloma necrosis. Aly, S., Laskay, T., Mages, J., Malzan, A., Lang, R., Ehlers, S. J. Pathol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  31. Treatment of Crohn's disease with anti-tumor necrosis factor chimeric monoclonal antibody (cA2). van Dullemen, H.M., van Deventer, S.J., Hommes, D.W., Bijl, H.A., Jansen, J., Tytgat, G.N., Woody, J. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome as a cause of hepatic fibrin-ring granulomas. Vanderstigel, M., Zafrani, E.S., Lejonc, J.L., Schaeffer, A., Portos, J.L. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Ex vivo lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1 secretion from murine peritoneal macrophages inhibited by probucol, a hypocholesterolemic agent with antioxidant properties. Ku, G., Doherty, N.S., Schmidt, L.F., Jackson, R.L., Dinerstein, R.J. FASEB J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Molecular identification of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene in liver tissue of primary biliary cirrhosis: is Propionibacterium acnes involved in granuloma formation? Harada, K., Tsuneyama, K., Sudo, Y., Masuda, S., Nakanuma, Y. Hepatology (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human granulomas and histiocytic reactions. Facchetti, F., Vermi, W., Fiorentini, S., Chilosi, M., Caruso, A., Duse, M., Notarangelo, L.D., Badolato, R. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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