The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Stapedius

  • It was concluded that, especially in children with an etiology of meningitis, the intraoperative stapedius reflex threshold (even after corrections for the concentration of the volatile anesthetics used) was a weak predictor of the C-level [1].
  • The commonly used parameters of the stapedius reflex responses in the diagnosis of sensorineural hearing disorders are the reflex threshold level and the persistence of the reflex response on prolonged stimulation, i.e., the reflex decay test [2].
  • Subjects with mean PTA better than 70 dB HL together with stapedius reflex present for 500 and 1,000 Hz, no decay and no vertigo have a very favourable prognosis: 86% had complete or good recovery [3].
  • The on-off effect of the acoustic stapedius reflex was found in association with several kinds of ear disease: otosclerotic stapes fixation, incudostapedial dislocation and sensorineural hearing loss [4].
  • The stapedius reflex (SR), its adaptation and the brainstem auditory evoked potential (ABR) were recorded in a group of 53 multiple sclerosis patients [5].

High impact information on Stapedius

  • CONCLUSION--The subclinical involvement of the stapedius motor neurons or of the supranuclear stapedius motor system might be responsible for the abnormalities of the stapedial reflex in ALS [6].
  • 1. The sound frequency selectivities of single stapedius motoneurons were investigated in ketamine anesthetized and in decerebrate cats by recording from axons in the small nerve fascicles entering the stapedius muscle [7].
  • OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was, first, to determine the effect of the concentrations of volatile anesthetics (halothane and isoflurane) on the intraoperative elicited electrical stapedius reflex threshold (ESRT) and, second, to evaluate the relation between the ESRTs and postoperative C-levels [8].
  • The results of tone and speech audiometry, stapedius reflex measurements, and brainstem evoked response audiometry in this study showed a pattern similar to that generally seen in patients with purely sensorineural hearing loss [9].
  • The present investigation evaluates the effectiveness of NaF treatment in modifying the natural course of subclinical otosclerosis, as monitored by the stapedius reflex [10].

Biological context of Stapedius


Anatomical context of Stapedius

  • Elastin content in the mid-portion of control stapedius tendons increased with age (13% at 35 years of age to 35% at 70 years of age).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[12]
  • The administration of isoproterenol increased the activity of cytochrome oxidase as well as the diameter of muscle fibers in the orbicularis oculi muscle and stapedius muscle [13].
  • The muscle fiber types and sizes in the M. stapedius (middle ear muscle) of the domestic chicken, Gallus gallus were determined histochemically on the basis of their reactions to myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase), succinic dehydrogenase and NADH diaphorase [14].
  • Electromyographic recordings of the activity of the tensor veli palatini, tensor tympani, and stapedius muscles were obtained from several adult human subjects [15].

Associations of Stapedius with chemical compounds


Gene context of Stapedius

  • The effect of sensorineural hearing loss upon stapedius reflex growth functions was studied in the elderly [20].
  • SPL p.e. The following parameters were evaluated: stapedius contraction latency, amplitude, duration and recruitment time [21].
  • On the contrary, subjects with mean PTA worse than 70 dB HL and with pathological stapedius reflex have a generally unfavourable prognosis: 35% had complete or good recovery [3].
  • Comparative post-operative measures were also obtained, including behavioral threshold levels, behavioral comfort levels, and the contralateral stapedius reflex threshold (ESR) on selected electrodes [22].
  • The first report on stapedius reflex and general anaesthesia was published by Mink et al. in 1981 [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Stapedius

  • 1-10 years after the first examination, 56 children below 15 years of age with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss were re-examined with a test-battery consisting of puretone and speech audiometry, stapedius reflex tests, caloric tests, brainstem response audiometry and otoneurological tests [24].


  1. Stapedius reflex measurements during surgery for cochlear implantation in children. van den Borne, B., Snik, A.F., Mens, L.H., Brokx, J.P., van den Broek, P. The American journal of otology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. The stapedius reflex tests in retrocochlear hearing disorders. Hirsch, A. Audiology (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Prognosis and therapy of early acute idiopathic auditory failure. Russolo, M., Bianchi, M. Audiology (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Clinical observations on the on-off effect of the acoustic stapedius reflex. Debruyne, F. Clinical otolaryngology and allied sciences. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Stapedius reflex and brainstem auditory evoked responses in multiple sclerosis patients. Grénman, R., Lang, H., Panelius, M., Salmivalli, A., Laine, H., Rintamäki, J. Scandinavian audiology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Stapedial reflex in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Shimizu, T., Hayashida, T., Hayashi, H., Kato, S., Tanabe, H. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Acoustic reflex frequency selectivity in single stapedius motoneurons of the cat. Kobler, J.B., Guinan, J.J., Vacher, S.R., Norris, B.E. J. Neurophysiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. The influence of the concentration of volatile anesthetics on the stapedius reflex determined intraoperatively during cochlear implantation in children. Makhdoum, M.J., Snik, A.F., Stollman, M.H., de Grood, P.M., van den Broek, P. The American journal of otology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Air-bone gap in patients with X-linked stapes gusher syndrome. Snik, A.F., Hombergen, G.C., Mylanus, E.A., Cremers, C.W. The American journal of otology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of sodium fluoride on early stages of otosclerosis. Colletti, V., Fiorino, F.G. The American journal of otology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Outcomes of cochlear implantation in children with auditory neuropathy. Peterson, A., Shallop, J., Driscoll, C., Breneman, A., Babb, J., Stoeckel, R., Fabry, L. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Fine structure of the tendon of the human stapedius muscle: comparison of normals and clinically otosclerotic patients. Franz, P., Böck, P., Swoboda, H., Türk, R., Grasl, M.C., Aharinejad, S., Firbas, W. Acta Otolaryngol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of isoproterenol on the orbicularis oculi and stapedius muscles. Ishii, K., Zhai, W.G., Akita, M. ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. A histochemical characterization of muscle fiber types in the avian M. stapedius. Counter, S.A., Hellstrand, E., Borg, E. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. The tensor tympani, stapedius, and tensor veli palatini muscles--an electromyographic study. Kamerer, D.B., Rood, S.R. Otolaryngology. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Site of lesion testing findings in a routine test battery. Gertner, A.B. The American journal of otology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Changes of stapedius reflex and hearing threshold in patients receiving high-dose cisplatin treatment. Laurell, G., Skedinger, M. Audiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Intraoperative electrically elicited stapedius reflex threshold is related to the dosage of hypnotic drugs in general anesthesia. Schultz, A., Berger, F.A., Weber, B.P., Grouven, U., Niclaus, O., Lüllwitz, E., Schultz, B. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of ketamine on the stapedius reflex in the squirrel monkey. Thompson, G.C., Stach, B.A., Jerger, J.F. Archives of otolaryngology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of sensorineural hearing loss on the stapedius reflex growth function in the elderly. Silman, S., Gelfand, S.A. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Relationships between acoustic reflex patterns elicited by unfiltered white noise and narrow band white noise stimuli of different duration but of the same intensity. Rossi, G., Solero, P., Rolando, M. The Journal of laryngology and otology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Objective intraoperative method to record averaged electromyographic stapedius muscle reflexes in cochlear implant patients. Almqvist, B., Harris, S., Shallop, J.K. Audiology (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Acoustic reflex and general anaesthesia. Farkas, Z. Scandinavian audiology. Supplementum. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Unilateral sensorineural hearing loss in children less than 15 years of age. Hallmo, P., Møller, P., Lind, O., Tonning, F.M. Scandinavian audiology. (1986) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities