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Chemical Compound Review

Magnorbin     (2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2- dihydroxyethyl]-4,5...

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Disease relevance of vitamin C

  • Thrombocytopenia was generally uncommon except on arm C level 2, where the median platelet count was 26,000/mm3 [1].
  • Molecular characterization of monodehydroascorbate radical reductase from cucumber highly expressed in Escherichia coli [2].
  • The ascorbyl radical could only be detected in brain slices during the reperfusion-phase after 30 minutes of ischemia [3].
  • We previously showed that the HSV-1 immediate-early protein ICP22 is involved in this phenomenon, since induction of IIi and depletion of IIa are deficient in cells infected with 22/n199, an HSV-1 ICP22 nonsense mutant (S. A. Rice, M. C. Long, V. Lam, P. A. Schaffer, and C. A. Spencer, J. Virol. 69:5550-5559, 1995) [4].
  • Three patients in each group displayed decreased antithrombin III function, and 1 patient with a lacunar infarction had a low protein C level [5].

Psychiatry related information on vitamin C

  • No significant group mean difference in speech perception scores was found in comparing the clinical MAP with the streamlined MAPs based on a single interpolated T- or C-level profile created from five behavioral measures [6].
  • In the present study we evaluated protein C level in the plasma of patients with liver cell damage due to chronic alcohol consumption [7].

High impact information on vitamin C


Chemical compound and disease context of vitamin C


Biological context of vitamin C

  • The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was Asp-Val-Lys-Thr-Leu-Gln-Glu-His-Leu-Gln-Leu-Ala-Leu-Met-Val-. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 5.2, monitored at 37 degrees C. The enzyme had affinity toward L-ascorbic acid, D-ascorbic acid, L-erythroascorbic acid, and D-erythroascorbic acid [17].
  • Ascorbyl radical as natural indicator of oxidative stress: quantitative regularities [18].
  • Three major advances in the past 2 years have made map-based cloning in Arabidopsis fairly routine: sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome, the availability of more than 50,000 markers in the Cereon Arabidopsis Polymorphism Collection, and improvements in the methods used for detecting DNA polymorphisms [19].
  • Infection of cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) results in a rapid alteration of phosphorylation on the large subunit of cellular RNA polymerase II (RNAP II), most likely on its C-terminal domain (S. A. Rice, M. C. Long, V. Lam, C. A. Spencer, J. Virol. 68:988-1001, 1994) [20].
  • Interestingly, individuals with the homozygous CGT genotype (n = 40) had a mean protein C level of 94%, whereas individuals with a homozygous TAA genotype (n = 28) had a mean protein C level of 116% [21].

Anatomical context of vitamin C

  • Based on our new structural model, these two heme B prosthetic groups are likely to be located on both sides of the membranes in close contact with the ascorbic acid- and semidehydroascorbic acid-binding sites, respectively, to facilitate the electron transfer across the membranes [22].
  • These results suggest that the DCytb present in human erythrocytes may contribute to their ability to reduce extracellular monodehydroascorbate [23].
  • By contrast, agents that raise cAMP or phorbol esters lead to an inhibition of cotransport, indicating that the NGF effect is not mediated by stimulation of either cAMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase C. Long term NGF treatment (> 2 days) leads to neurite formation and a maintained approximately 2-fold increase in cotransport activity [24].
  • The cystatin C level was assayed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 29 patients with brain hemorrhage and 45 control patients with other neurological diseases [25].
  • The enhanced DHA uptake was not due to higher endogenous ASC levels that are normally present in exponential phase because preloading of protoplasts of different ages did not affect DHA uptake [26].

Associations of vitamin C with other chemical compounds


Gene context of vitamin C

  • Significantly elevated levels of PAI, alpha2- antiplasmin together with low protein C level in diabetic patients may result in the disturbance of haemostatic balance favoring thrombotic events [32].
  • Pretreatment with superoxide dismutase and catalase attenuated the increase in ascorbyl radical and LDH level induced by the cold injury [33].
  • The percent of laboratory values measured over the study period in each group that met the criteria of transferrin saturation more than 20% was greatest in the Tabron group (58%), followed by the Feosol (47%), Chromagen (33%), and Niferex (31%) groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[34]
  • In group I, hGH treatment raised the plasma somatomedin C level and maintained it in the range 0.5-1.5 U/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[35]
  • In addition to monodehydroascorbate, the enzyme catalyzed the reduction of ferricyanide and 2,6-dichloroindophenol but showed little reactivity with calf liver cytochrome b5 and horse heart cytochrome c. The kinetic data suggested a ping-pong mechanism for the monodehydroascorbate reductase-catalyzed reaction [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of vitamin C


  1. A randomized phase I trial of chronic oral etoposide with or without granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with advanced malignancies. Shaffer, D.W., Smith, L.S., Burris, H.A., Clark, G.M., Eckardt, J.R., Fields, S.M., Weiss, G.R., Rinaldi, D.A., Bowen, K.J., Kuhn, J.G. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular characterization of monodehydroascorbate radical reductase from cucumber highly expressed in Escherichia coli. Sano, S., Miyake, C., Mikami, B., Asada, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Hypoglycemia, hypoxia, and ischemia in a corticostriatal slice preparation: electrophysiologic changes and ascorbyl radical formation. Pedersen, J.Z., Bernardi, G., Centonze, D., Pisani, A., Rossi, L., Rotilio, G., Calabresi, P. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. ICP22 and the UL13 protein kinase are both required for herpes simplex virus-induced modification of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Long, M.C., Leong, V., Schaffer, P.A., Spencer, C.A., Rice, S.A. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Hematologic abnormalities occur in both cortical and lacunar infarction. Kilpatrick, T.J., Matkovic, Z., Davis, S.M., McGrath, C.M., Dauer, R.J. Stroke (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Evaluation of streamlined programming procedures for the Nucleus cochlear implant with the Contour electrode array. Plant, K., Law, M.A., Whitford, L., Knight, M., Tari, S., Leigh, J., Pedley, K., Nel, E. Ear and hearing. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Plasma protein C as a marker of hepatocellular damage in alcoholic liver disease. Kłoczko, J., Mian, M., Wojtukiewicz, M.Z., Babiuch, L., Bielawiec, M., Galar, M. Haemostasis (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. IL-6-STAT3 controls intracellular MHC class II alphabeta dimer level through cathepsin S activity in dendritic cells. Kitamura, H., Kamon, H., Sawa, S., Park, S.J., Katunuma, N., Ishihara, K., Murakami, M., Hirano, T. Immunity (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. A novel point mutation in a 3' splice site of the NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase gene results in immunologically undetectable enzyme and impaired NADH-dependent ascorbate regeneration in cultured fibroblasts of a patient with type II hereditary methemoglobinemia. Shirabe, K., Landi, M.T., Takeshita, M., Uziel, G., Fedrizzi, E., Borgese, N. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule to porcine interposition vein grafts. Chen, S.J., Wilson, J.M., Muller, D.W. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Severe perinatal thrombosis in double and triple heterozygous offspring of a family segregating two independent protein S mutations and a protein C mutation. Formstone, C.J., Hallam, P.J., Tuddenham, E.G., Voke, J., Layton, M., Nicolaides, K., Hann, I.M., Cooper, D.N. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol: distinct effects on protein kinase C activity. Issandou, M., Bayard, F., Darbon, J.M. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding pea monodehydroascorbate reductase. Murthy, S.S., Zilinskas, B.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Serum cystatin C is a better marker of topotecan clearance than serum creatinine. Hoppe, A., Séronie-Vivien, S., Thomas, F., Delord, J.P., Malard, L., Canal, P., Chatelut, E. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Increased serum cathepsin S in patients with atherosclerosis and diabetes. Liu, J., Ma, L., Yang, J., Ren, A., Sun, Z., Yan, G., Sun, J., Fu, H., Xu, W., Hu, C., Shi, G.P. Atherosclerosis (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Ascorbyl radical/ascorbate ratio in plasma from iron overloaded rats as oxidative stress indicator. Galleano, M., Aimo, L., Puntarulo, S. Toxicol. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. A heme-containing ascorbate oxidase from Pleurotus ostreatus. Kim, Y.R., Yu, S.W., Lee, S.R., Hwang, Y.Y., Kang, S.O. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Ascorbyl radical as natural indicator of oxidative stress: quantitative regularities. Roginsky, V.A., Stegmann, H.B. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Arabidopsis map-based cloning in the post-genome era. Jander, G., Norris, S.R., Rounsley, S.D., Bush, D.F., Levin, I.M., Last, R.L. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Herpes simplex virus immediate-early protein ICP22 is required for viral modification of host RNA polymerase II and establishment of the normal viral transcription program. Rice, S.A., Long, M.C., Lam, V., Schaffer, P.A., Spencer, C.A. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Genotypic variation in the promoter region of the protein C gene is associated with plasma protein C levels and thrombotic risk. Spek, C.A., Koster, T., Rosendaal, F.R., Bertina, R.M., Reitsma, P.H. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Existence of two heme B centers in cytochrome b561 from bovine adrenal chromaffin vesicles as revealed by a new purification procedure and EPR spectroscopy. Tsubaki, M., Nakayama, M., Okuyama, E., Ichikawa, Y., Hori, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Human Erythrocyte Membranes Contain a Cytochrome b561 That May Be Involved in Extracellular Ascorbate Recycling. Su, D., May, J.M., Koury, M.J., Asard, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Regulation by nerve growth factor and protein phosphorylation of Na/K/2Cl cotransport and cell volume in PC12 cells. Leung, S., O'Donnell, M.E., Martinez, A., Palfrey, H.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of cystatin C in cerebrospinal fluid. Shimode, K., Fujihara, S., Nakamura, M., Kobayashi, S., Tsunematsu, T. Stroke (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Dehydroascorbate uptake activity correlates with cell growth and cell division of tobacco bright yellow-2 cell cultures. Horemans, N., Potters, G., De Wilde, L., Caubergs, R.J. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Monodehydroascorbate reductase from cucumber is a flavin adenine dinucleotide enzyme. Hossain, M.A., Asada, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Semidehydroascorbic acid as an intermediate in norepinephrine biosynthesis in chromaffin granules. Dhariwal, K.R., Black, C.D., Levine, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Double antisense plants lacking ascorbate peroxidase and catalase are less sensitive to oxidative stress than single antisense plants lacking ascorbate peroxidase or catalase. Rizhsky, L., Hallak-Herr, E., Van Breusegem, F., Rachmilevitch, S., Barr, J.E., Rodermel, S., Inzé, D., Mittler, R. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Zonal changes in ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide contents, peroxidase, and ascorbate-related enzyme activities in onion roots. Del Carmen Córdoba-Pedregosa, M., Córdoba, F., Villalba, J.M., González-Reyes, J.A. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Human adrenal glands secrete vitamin C in response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Padayatty, S.J., Doppman, J.L., Chang, R., Wang, Y., Gill, J., Papanicolaou, D.A., Levine, M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Disturbances of haemostasis in diabetes mellitus. Fattah, M.A., Shaheen, M.H., Mahfouz, M.H. Dis. Markers (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Direct detection of ascorbyl radical in experimental brain injury: microdialysis and an electron spin resonance spectroscopic study. Kihara, T., Sakata, S., Ikeda, M. J. Neurochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Efficacy of oral iron therapy in patients receiving recombinant human erythropoietin. Wingard, R.L., Parker, R.A., Ismail, N., Hakim, R.M. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Effects of human growth hormone on body composition in elderly men. Rudman, D., Feller, A.G., Cohn, L., Shetty, K.R., Rudman, I.W., Draper, M.W. Horm. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. A direct demonstration of the catalytic action of monodehydroascorbate reductase by pulse radiolysis. Kobayashi, K., Tagawa, S., Sano, S., Asada, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Role of neutrophils in radical production during ischemia and reperfusion of the rat brain: effect of neutrophil depletion on extracellular ascorbyl radical formation. Matsuo, Y., Kihara, T., Ikeda, M., Ninomiya, M., Onodera, H., Kogure, K. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
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