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Chemical Compound Review

Fomesafen     5-[2-chloro-4- (trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]- N...

Synonyms: Fomesafene, Reflex, SureCN39607, HSDB 6660, KS-5045, ...
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Disease relevance of Fomesafene


Psychiatry related information on Fomesafene

  • MS recurred during wakefulness and slow sleep in all cases and during REM sleep in reflex cases [6].
  • Emotion-modulated startle reflex is an important indicator of traitlike differences in affective processing implicated in the biological basis of personality and psychopathology [7].
  • At 12 and 13 weeks they were assessed by measures of behaviour and learning: open-field activity, auditory startle reflex and prepulse inhibition, water maze learning, and passive avoidance [8].
  • Primary dystonia is associated with abnormal brainstem function, as shown by abnormalities of the blink reflex in blepharospasm (BSP) and of the auditory startle reaction in cervical dystonia [9].
  • These propositions are explored here in the context of psychophysiology, concentrating on examples in relation to the Orienting Reflex (OR) [10].
  • We refer to this powerful inhibitory reflex as the intrinsic occult reflex (hidden from observation) because it withdraws motor activity from the muscle [11].

High impact information on Fomesafene

  • We have characterized the transcriptome at three levels: (1) the central nervous system, (2) the elementary components of a simple behavior: the gill-withdrawal reflex-by analyzing sensory, motor, and serotonergic modulatory neurons, and (3) processes of individual neurons [12].
  • The nervous system, via an inflammatory reflex of the vagus nerve, can inhibit cytokine release and thereby prevent tissue injury and death [13].
  • Background & Aims: The recently proposed Inflammatory Reflex describes an interaction between the vagus nerve and peripheral macrophages, resulting in attenuation of proinflammatory cytokine release in response to systemic exposure to bacterial endotoxin [14].
  • RESULTS: Reflex decreases in blood pressure and heart rate indicative of visceral afferent activation were greater in previously shocked rats than in controls [15].
  • Sodium sensitivity of baroreceptors. Reflex effects on blood pressure and fluid volume in the cat [16].

Chemical compound and disease context of Fomesafene

  • Methods: Serial electroclinical and neuropsychological assessments, both during wakefulness and during sleep, were performed in 22 otherwise healthy children with spontaneous (17) or reflex (5) MS, recorded by video-EEG-polygraphy since clinical onset [6].
  • Bleomycin treatment in rats results in pulmonary fibrosis that is characterized by a rapid shallow breathing pattern, a decrease in quasi-static lung compliance and a blunting of the Hering-Breuer Inflation Reflex [17].
  • Whether diabetes mellitus changed the distribution of phenobarbital (60 mg/kg, i.v.) in brain of mice was measured, and whether the changed distribution caused the difference of phenobarbital (80 and 100 mg/kg) -induced loss of the righting reflex in non-diabetic and diabetic mice were also investigated [18].
  • In order to define a late phase model of sepsis, simultaneous clinical signs (loss of response to pain [RP] and/or righting reflex [RR]), and metabolic (glucose, lactate) concentrations were studied in the 10 day old Sprague-Dawley rat [19].
  • Nonylphenol polyethoxylate adjuvant mitigates the reproductive toxicity of fomesafen on the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in outdoor experimental ponds [20].

Biological context of Fomesafene

  • Tadpole behavioral assays showed that the presence of 3alpha5alphaP at a concentration ineffective at causing changes in tadpole behavior shifted the ethanol dose-response curve for loss of righting reflex to lower concentrations and that this effect was neutralized by coapplication of 17-PA with 3alpha5alphaP [21].
  • In a separate group of 11 animals, rat BNP-32 and rat CNP-22 were infused at 50 pmol/kg per min i.v. RESULTS: Reflex responses to ANP were dose-related, with a significant increase in baroreflex sensitivity of 50+/-15% at the 25 pmol dose, 102+/-10% at the 50 pmol dose and 117+/-11% at 100 pmol dose (all P<0.05) [22].
  • Although the mechanism for this increased H-reflex is not clear, previous studies have shown that pharmacological activation of the 5-HT(2) receptors (5-HT(2)R) can potentiate the monosynaptic reflex [23].
  • BACKGROUND: Reflex abdominal muscle contraction elicited by colorectal distension in male rats is inhibited by mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists and sites of action and receptor subtypes have been probed [24].
  • The early reflex (R1) showed an increase of amplitude of action potential during the task, the late reflex (R2) did not [25].

Anatomical context of Fomesafene

  • This may be particularly relevant for vagal intraganglionic laminar endings, which could represent glutamatergic sensor-effector components of intramural reflex arcs in the gastrointestinal tract [26].
  • 1. Reflex activity in human arm muscles has been measured in response to torque perturbations around the elbow joint in the flexion-extension direction and/or the supination-pronation direction [27].
  • 1. Reflex effects of cold stimulation of the lower urinary tract were studied in cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose [28].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Reflex tear secretion caused by corneal stimulation seems to be chiefly due to activation of corneal polymodal nociceptors, whereas selective excitation of corneal mechanonociceptors or cold receptors appears to be less effective in evoking an augmented lacrimal secretion [29].
  • 1. Reflex efferent control of a muscle stretch receptor by a joint proprioceptor of the same limb was studied in an isolated CNS preparation from the shore crab [30].

Associations of Fomesafene with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Fomesafene

  • There was no difference in the sensitivity of the baroreceptor reflex, as reflected by the change in HR divided by the concurrent change in MBP between Y(1)-/- and Y(1)+/+ mice [36].
  • Using a total of 341 NFR/wr strain pups, we found a strong association between RR and the Wobbler disease status (p<0.0001) between postnatal days 3 to 7, and achieved greater than 97% correct classification of Wobblers [37].
  • The baseline MAP, HR, and BRS in reflex tachycardia were significantly correlated to plasma insulin levels but not to the Si value, an index of insulin sensitivity [38].
  • The HR and BRS in reflex tachycardia were significantly increased in the IR and IS groups, but the BRS in reflex bradycardia was not different among all rats [38].
  • In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced in female Lewis rats, a model of MS, we investigated at distinct clinical severity scores the micturition reflex by cystometrograms [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fomesafene

  • Chronic cough: how do cough reflex sensitivity and subjective assessments correlate with objective cough counts during ambulatory monitoring [39]?
  • 1. Reflex responses were elicited in muscles that act at the ankle by electrical stimulation of low-threshold afferents from the foot in human subjects who were reclining supine [40].
  • Genetic and environmental influences on emotion-modulated startle reflex: A twin study [7].
  • 2. Reflex pathways were acutely interrupted by either subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or prevertebral ganglionectomy [41].
  • INTERVENTION: The following information was abstracted for each patient: demographics, clinical presentation, and results of thermoregulatory sweat testing, vascular (noninvasive) testing, and nerve testing (electromyography and autonomic reflex screen, including quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test) [42].


  1. Letter: Reflex cardiac arrest in tetraplegia. Sleight, P. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Complex regional pain syndrome type I (RSD): pathology of skeletal muscle and peripheral nerve. van der Laan, L., ter Laak, H.J., Gabreëls-Festen, A., Gabreëls, F., Goris, R.J. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Idiopathic postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: an attenuated form of acute pandysautonomia? Schondorf, R., Low, P.A. Neurology (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Palatal myoclonus. Reflex activation of contractions. Soso, M.J., Nielsen, V.K., Jannetta, P.J. Arch. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization and restoration of altered inhibitory and excitatory control of micturition reflex in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats. Vignes, J.R., Deloire, M.S., Petry, K.G., Nagy, F. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Benign Myoclonic Epilepsy in Infancy (BMEI): A Longitudinal Electroclinical Study of 22 Cases. Darra, F., Fiorini, E., Zoccante, L., Mastella, L., Torniero, C., Cortese, S., Meneghello, L., Fontana, E., Bernardina, B.D. Epilepsia (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Genetic and environmental influences on emotion-modulated startle reflex: A twin study. Anokhin, A.P., Golosheykin, S., Heath, A.C. Psychophysiology (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Environmental change during postnatal development alters behaviour, cognitions and neurogenesis of mice. Iso, H., Simoda, S., Matsuyama, T. Behav. Brain Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Auditory startle reaction in primary blepharospasm. Müller, J., Rinnerthaler, M., Poewe, W., Kofler, M. Mov. Disord. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Promise versus reality in relation to the unitary orienting reflex: A case study examining the role of theory in psychophysiology. Barry, R.J. International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. An enteric occult reflex underlies accommodation and slow transit in the distal large bowel. Dickson, E.J., Spencer, N.J., Hennig, G.W., Bayguinov, P.O., Ren, J., Heredia, D.J., Smith, T.K. Gastroenterology (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Neuronal transcriptome of aplysia: neuronal compartments and circuitry. Moroz, L.L., Edwards, J.R., Puthanveettil, S.V., Kohn, A.B., Ha, T., Heyland, A., Knudsen, B., Sahni, A., Yu, F., Liu, L., Jezzini, S., Lovell, P., Iannucculli, W., Chen, M., Nguyen, T., Sheng, H., Shaw, R., Kalachikov, S., Panchin, Y.V., Farmerie, W., Russo, J.J., Ju, J., Kandel, E.R. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Physiology and immunology of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway. Tracey, K.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. The vagus nerve: a tonic inhibitory influence associated with inflammatory bowel disease in a murine model. Ghia, J.E., Blennerhassett, P., Kumar-Ondiveeran, H., Verdu, E.F., Collins, S.M. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Long-lasting changes in central nervous system responsivity to colonic distention after stress in rats. Stam, R., Ekkelenkamp, K., Frankhuijzen, A.C., Bruijnzeel, A.W., Akkermans, L.M., Wiegant, V.M. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Sodium sensitivity of baroreceptors. Reflex effects on blood pressure and fluid volume in the cat. Kunze, D.L., Brown, A.M. Circ. Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Lung vagal afferent activity in rats with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Schelegle, E.S., Walby, W.F., Mansoor, J.K., Chen, A.T. Respiration physiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Attenuated function and expression of P-glycoprotein at blood-brain barrier and increased brain distribution of phenobarbital in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Liu, H., Zhang, D., Xu, X., Liu, X., Wang, G., Xie, L., Pang, X., Liu, L. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Concurrent clinical and metabolic derangements in the newborn rat: a late phase sepsis model. Fitzgerald, M., Zeller, W.P., Goto, M., Anderson, C.L., Hurley, R.M. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate adjuvant mitigates the reproductive toxicity of fomesafen on the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in outdoor experimental ponds. Jumel, A., Coutellec, M.A., Cravedi, J.P., Lagadic, L. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Ethanol modulates the interaction of the endogenous neurosteroid allopregnanolone with the alpha1beta2gamma2L GABAA receptor. Akk, G., Li, P., Manion, B.D., Evers, A.S., Steinbach, J.H. Mol. Pharmacol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Similar baroreflex bradycardic actions of atrial natriuretic peptide and B and C types of natriuretic peptides in conscious rats. Thomas, C.J., Head, G.A., Woods, R.L. J. Hypertens. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Up-regulation of 5-HT(2) receptors is involved in the increased H-reflex amplitude after contusive spinal cord injury. Lee, J.K., Johnson, C.S., Wrathall, J.R. Exp. Neurol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Pharmacology of opioid inhibition to noxious uterine cervical distension. Sandner-Kiesling, A., Eisenach, J.C. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Blink reflexes and the state of arousal. Boelhouwer, A.J., Brunia, C.H. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Glutamatergic functions of primary afferent neurons with special emphasis on vagal afferents. Raab, M., Neuhuber, W.L. Int. Rev. Cytol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Long-latency stretch reflexes as co-ordinated functional responses in man. Gielen, C.C., Ramaekers, L., van Zuylen, E.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. A bladder-to-bladder cooling reflex in the cat. Fall, M., Lindström, S., Mazières, L. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Tear secretion induced by selective stimulation of corneal and conjunctival sensory nerve fibers. Acosta, M.C., Peral, A., Luna, C., Pintor, J., Belmonte, C., Gallar, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Reflex actions of one proprioceptor on the motoneurones of a muscle receptor and their central modulation in the shore crab. Head, S.I., Bush, B.M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Improvement in bladder storage function by tamsulosin depends on suppression of C-fiber urethral afferent activity in rats. Yokoyama, O., Yusup, A., Oyama, N., Aoki, Y., Miwa, Y., Akino, H. J. Urol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Comparison of isoflurane and halothane safety margins in rats. Kissin, I., Morgan, P.L., Smith, L.R. Anesthesiology (1983) [Pubmed]
  33. The locust jump. II. Neural circuits of the motor programme. Heitler, W.J., Burrows, M. J. Exp. Biol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  34. Homoglutathione confers tolerance to acifluorfen in transgenic tobacco plants expressing soybean homoglutathione synthetase. Sugiyama, A., Sekiya, J. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Nitric oxide impairs baroreflex gain during acute psychological stress. Daubert, D.L., Brooks, V.L. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  36. NPY Y(1) receptor is not involved in the hemodynamic response to an acute cold pressor test in mice. Cavadas, C., Waeber, B., Pedrazzini, T., Grand, D., Aubert, J.F., Buclin, T., Grouzmann, E. Peptides (2007) [Pubmed]
  37. A novel behavioral method to detect motoneuron disease in Wobbler mice aged three to seven days old. Bose, P., Fielding, R., Ameis, K.M., Vacca-Galloway, L.L. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Hyperinsulinemia instead of insulin resistance induces baroreflex dysfunction in chronic insulin-infused rats. Hong, L.Z., Hsieh, P.S. Am. J. Hypertens. (2007) [Pubmed]
  39. Chronic cough: how do cough reflex sensitivity and subjective assessments correlate with objective cough counts during ambulatory monitoring? Clare Decalmer, S., Webster, D., Alice Kelsall, A., McGuinness, K., Arthur Woodcock, A., Ann Smith, J. Thorax (2007) [Pubmed]
  40. Reflex responses in active muscles elicited by stimulation of low-threshold afferents from the human foot. Aniss, A.M., Gandevia, S.C., Burke, D. J. Neurophysiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  41. Modulation of gastric contractions in response to tachykinins and bethanechol by extrinsic nerves. Holzer-Petsche, U. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  42. Thermoregulatory sweat testing in patients with erythromelalgia. Davis, M.D., Genebriera, J., Sandroni, P., Fealey, R.D. Archives of dermatology (2006) [Pubmed]
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