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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Vitex


High impact information on Vitex

  • We have previously reported that an ethanol extract of the dried ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex) displays cytotoxic activity against certain kinds of human cancer cell line resulting in the induction of apoptosis [2].
  • While the amount of intracellular GSH decreased significantly after treatment with Vitex, the level of GSSG was unaffected [2].
  • These apoptotic alterations induced by exposure to Vitex were blocked by the presence of an anti-oxidative reagent, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, or the addition of exogenous GSH [2].
  • Evidence for estrogen receptor beta-selective activity of Vitex agnus-castus and isolated flavones [3].
  • Tracheospasmolytic activity of viteosin-A and vitexicarpin isolated from vitex trifolia [4].

Biological context of Vitex

  • Tyrosinase inhibitory lignans from the methanol extract of the roots of Vitex negundo Linn. and their structure-activity relationship [5].
  • A methanol extract of chaste-tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus L.) was tested for its ability to displace radiolabeled estradiol from the binding site of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) [6].
  • The present result provides flavonoids 1-6 as new cell cycle inhibitors and 1 and 4 as new anticancer flavonoids, which not only provide the first example of cell cycle G2/M phase inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing constituents of V. trifolia L. but also explain the use of Vitex trifolia L. by Chinese people to treat cancers [7].

Anatomical context of Vitex


Associations of Vitex with chemical compounds


Gene context of Vitex

  • In our studies on prolactin inhibition by plant extracts we focused on the effects of extracts of Vitex agnus castus and its preparations on rat pituitary cells under basal and stimulated conditions in primary cell culture [14].
  • This article reviews evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of black cohosh, ginseng, chastetree, dong quai, evening primrose oil, soy products, and the so-called natural hormones [15].
  • A specific questionnaire was developed for determining the effect of Vitex on psychic and somatic complaints, on the four characteristic PMS symptom complexes depression, anxiety, craving, and hyperhydration (DACH), and on single groups of symptoms [16].
  • Western blotting analysis showed that in Vitex extract-treated KATO-III cells, the presence of NAC also inhibited the expression of heme oxygenase-1 and the active forms of caspases-3, -8 and -9 [17].


  1. Phenylnaphthalene compounds from the subterranean part of Vitex rotundifolia and their antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Kawazoe, K., Yutani, A., Tamemoto, K., Yuasa, S., Shibata, H., Higuti, T., Takaishi, Y. J. Nat. Prod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Human gastric signet ring carcinoma (KATO-III) cell apoptosis induced by Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract through intracellular oxidative stress. Ohyama, K., Akaike, T., Imai, M., Toyoda, H., Hirobe, C., Bessho, T. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Evidence for estrogen receptor beta-selective activity of Vitex agnus-castus and isolated flavones. Jarry, H., Spengler, B., Porzel, A., Schmidt, J., Wuttke, W., Christoffel, V. Planta Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Tracheospasmolytic activity of viteosin-A and vitexicarpin isolated from vitex trifolia. Alam, G., Wahyuono, S., Ganjar, I.G., Hakim, L., Timmerman, H., Verpoorte, R. Planta Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Tyrosinase inhibitory lignans from the methanol extract of the roots of Vitex negundo Linn. and their structure-activity relationship. Azhar-Ul-Haq, n.u.l.l., Malik, A., Khan, M.T., Anwar-Ul-Haq, n.u.l.l., Khan, S.B., Ahmad, A., Choudhary, M.I. Phytomedicine (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry). Liu, J., Burdette, J.E., Sun, Y., Deng, S., Schlecht, S.M., Zheng, W., Nikolic, D., Mahady, G., van Breemen, R.B., Fong, H.H., Pezzuto, J.M., Bolton, J.L., Farnsworth, N.R. Phytomedicine (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Flavonoids from Vitex trifolia L. inhibit cell cycle progression at G2/M phase and induce apoptosis in mammalian cancer cells. Li, W.X., Cui, C.B., Cai, B., Wang, H.Y., Yao, X.S. Journal of Asian natural products research. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Vitexicarpin, a flavonoid from the fruits of Vitex rotundifolia, inhibits mouse lymphocyte proliferation and growth of cell lines in vitro. You, K.M., Son, K.H., Chang, H.W., Kang, S.S., Kim, H.P. Planta Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Rotundifuran, a labdane type diterpene from Vitex rotundifolia, induces apoptosis in human myeloid leukaemia cells. Ko, W.G., Kang, T.H., Lee, S.J., Kim, Y.C., Lee, B.H. Phytotherapy research : PTR. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Iridoids with anti-inflammatory activity from Vitex peduncularis. Suksamrarn, A., Kumpun, S., Kirtikara, K., Yingyongnarongkul, B., Suksamrarn, S. Planta Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Flavonoids, triterpenoids and a lignan from Vitex altissima. Sridhar, C., Rao, K.V., Subbaraju, G.V. Phytochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. New acylated iridoid glucosides from Vitex altissima. Sridhar, C., Subbaraju, G.V., Venkateswarlu, Y., Venugopal, R.T. J. Nat. Prod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Lignan derivatives and a norditerpene from the seeds of Vitex negundo. Ono, M., Nishida, Y., Masuoka, C., Li, J.C., Okawa, M., Ikeda, T., Nohara, T. J. Nat. Prod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Agnus castus extracts inhibit prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells. Sliutz, G., Speiser, P., Schultz, A.M., Spona, J., Zeillinger, R. Horm. Metab. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Herbs, menopause, and dialysis. Roemheld-Hamm, B., Dahl, N.V. Seminars in dialysis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with a phytopharmaceutical formulation containing Vitex agnus castus. Loch, E.G., Selle, H., Boblitz, N. Journal of women's health & gender-based medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic inducibility of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract in cultured human normal and cancer cells and effect on growth. Ohyama, K., Akaike, T., Hirobe, C., Yamakawa, T. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2003) [Pubmed]
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