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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Alphaproteobacteria


High impact information on Alphaproteobacteria

  • 5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of heme biosynthesis in humans, animals, other non-plant eukaryotes, and alpha-proteobacteria [6].
  • This hypothesis relates to the plethora of duplicated HSP60 sequences among the classical alpha-proteobacteria contrasted with no duplications of HSP60 among other clades of proteobacterial genomes [7].
  • The flaF gene, which is conserved in several speices of flagellated alpha-proteobacteria, is required for motility and flagellin protein synthesis [8].
  • The nodulation of legumes has for more than a century been considered an exclusive capacity of a group of microorganisms commonly known as rhizobia and belonging to the alpha-Proteobacteria [9].
  • Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis showed that plant species had no impact on the diversity of alpha-Proteobacteria tfdA-like genes, although an impact of 2,4-D application was recorded [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Alphaproteobacteria

  • The tfdAalpha genes were also detected in 2,4-D-degrading alpha-Proteobacteria previously isolated from pristine environments in Hawaii and in Saskatchewan, Canada (Y. Kamagata, R. R. Fulthorpe, K. Tamura, H. Takami, L. J. Forney, and J. M. Tiedje, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2266-2272, 1997) [11].
  • These bacteria are able to use methyl halides as a sole source of carbon and energy, are all members of the alpha-Proteobacteria and were isolated from a variety of polluted and pristine terrestrial environments [12].
  • Sulfitobacter mediterraneus sp. nov., a new sulfite-oxidizing member of the alpha-Proteobacteria [13].
  • The most frequently obtained new isolates, mostly from 10(3)- and 10(4)-fold dilutions of the continental slope sediment, oxidized thiosulfate to sulfate and fell into a distinct phylogenetic cluster of marine alpha-Proteobacteria [14].
  • Rather, we found that at least one function of BacA is to affect the distribution of LPS fatty acids, including a very-long-chain fatty acid thought to be unique to the alpha-proteobacteria, including B. abortus [15].

Biological context of Alphaproteobacteria

  • During a molecular phylogenetic survey of extremely acidic (pH < 1), metal-rich acid mine drainage habitats in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, Calif., we detected 16S rRNA gene sequences of a novel bacterial group belonging to the order Rickettsiales in the Alphaproteobacteria [16].
  • All strains showed positive signals for tfdAalpha, and its phylogenetic tree was congruent with that of 16S rRNA genes in alpha-Proteobacteria, indicating evolution of tfdAalpha without horizontal gene transfer [17].
  • This operon encodes a putative aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD2; 357 amino acids) related to class III alcohol dehydrogenases and most similar to glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenases from alpha-Proteobacteria and Anabeana azollae [18].
  • Site-directed mutations that changed this consensus sequence abolished the DNA-damage-mediated expression of the R. palustris recA gene, confirming that this sequence is the SOS box of R. palustris and probably plays the same role in other alpha-Proteobacteria [19].
  • Widespread occurrence of a separate small RNA derived from the 5'-end of 23S rRNA and of an intervening sequence (IVS) which separates this domain from the main segment of 23S rRNA in the alpha-proteobacteria implies that processing reactions which act to excise the IVS are also maintained in this group [20].

Gene context of Alphaproteobacteria

  • Phylogenomic analysis supports lateral transfer of a eukaryotic-like HisRS into the alpha-proteobacteria followed by in situ adaptation of the bacterial tDNA(His) and identity rule divergence [21].
  • The variable part of the dnaK gene as an alternative marker for phylogenetic studies of rhizobia and related alpha Proteobacteria [22].
  • Strong recognition of U35 and U36 was confined to the pyrococcus-spirochete grouping within the archaeal branch of the class I LysRS phylogenetic tree, while U36 recognition was seen in other archaea and an example from the alpha-proteobacteria [23].
  • All bacteria other than the low G+C small cocci and a few of the alpha-Proteobacteria accumulated PHB [24].
  • Evolutionary relationship of phototrophic bacteria in the alpha-Proteobacteria based on farnesyl diphosphate synthase [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Alphaproteobacteria


  1. tmRNAs that encode proteolysis-inducing tags are found in all known bacterial genomes: A two-piece tmRNA functions in Caulobacter. Keiler, K.C., Shapiro, L., Williams, K.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Assimilation of polysaccharides and glucose by major bacterial groups in the Delaware Estuary. Elifantz, H., Malmstrom, R.R., Cottrell, M.T., Kirchman, D.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of Wolbachia transfection efficiency by using microinjection of embryonic cytoplasm and embryo homogenate. Xi, Z., Dobson, S.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. RNase III processing of intervening sequences found in helix 9 of 23S rRNA in the alpha subclass of Proteobacteria. Evguenieva-Hackenberg, E., Klug, G. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Diversity of the ring-cleaving dioxygenase gene pcaH in a salt marsh bacterial community. Buchan, A., Neidle, E.L., Moran, M.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Crystal structure of 5-aminolevulinate synthase, the first enzyme of heme biosynthesis, and its link to XLSA in humans. Astner, I., Schulze, J.O., van den Heuvel, J., Jahn, D., Schubert, W.D., Heinz, D.W. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Heat shock protein 60 sequence comparisons: duplications, lateral transfer, and mitochondrial evolution. Karlin, S., Brocchieri, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The conserved flaF gene has a critical role in coupling flagellin translation and assembly in Caulobacter crescentus. Llewellyn, M., Dutton, R.J., Easter, J., O'donnol, D., Gober, J.W. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Nodulation of Lupinus albus by strains of Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov. Trujillo, M.E., Willems, A., Abril, A., Planchuelo, A.M., Rivas, R., Ludeña, D., Mateos, P.F., Martínez-Molina, E., Velázquez, E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Enhanced mineralization of [U-(14)C]2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in soil from the rhizosphere of Trifolium pratense. Shaw, L.J., Burns, R.G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. tfdA-like genes in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium-Agromonas-Nitrobacter-Afipia cluster in alpha-Proteobacteria. Itoh, K., Kanda, R., Sumita, Y., Kim, H., Kamagata, Y., Suyama, K., Yamamoto, H., Hausinger, R.P., Tiedje, J.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. A review of bacterial methyl halide degradation: biochemistry, genetics and molecular ecology. McDonald, I.R., Warner, K.L., McAnulla, C., Woodall, C.A., Oremland, R.S., Murrell, J.C. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Sulfitobacter mediterraneus sp. nov., a new sulfite-oxidizing member of the alpha-Proteobacteria. Pukall, R., Buntefuss, D., Frühling, A., Rohde, M., Kroppenstedt, R.M., Burghardt, J., Lebaron, P., Bernard, L., Stackebrandt, E. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Diversity of thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria from marine sediments and hydrothermal vents. Teske, A., Brinkhoff, T., Muyzer, G., Moser, D.P., Rethmeier, J., Jannasch, H.W. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Deficiency of a Sinorhizobium meliloti BacA mutant in alfalfa symbiosis correlates with alteration of the cell envelope. Ferguson, G.P., Roop, R.M., Walker, G.C. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Extremely acidophilic protists from acid mine drainage host Rickettsiales-lineage endosymbionts that have intervening sequences in their 16S rRNA genes. Baker, B.J., Hugenholtz, P., Dawson, S.C., Banfield, J.F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Root nodule Bradyrhizobium spp. harbor tfdAalpha and cadA, homologous with genes encoding 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading proteins. Itoh, K., Tashiro, Y., Uobe, K., Kamagata, Y., Suyama, K., Yamamoto, H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Pyruvate decarboxylase: a key enzyme for the oxidative metabolism of lactic acid by Acetobacter pasteurianus. Chandra Raj, K., Ingram, L.O., Maupin-Furlow, J.A. Arch. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular analysis of the recA gene and SOS box of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris no. 7. Dumay, V., Inui, M., Yukawa, H. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Divergent mechanisms of 5' 23S rRNA IVS processing in the alpha-proteobacteria. Zahn, K., Inui, M., Yukawa, H. Nucleic Acids Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. TFAM detects co-evolution of tRNA identity rules with lateral transfer of histidyl-tRNA synthetase. Ardell, D.H., Andersson, S.G. Nucleic Acids Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. The variable part of the dnaK gene as an alternative marker for phylogenetic studies of rhizobia and related alpha Proteobacteria. Stepkowski, T., Czaplińska, M., Miedzinska, K., Moulin, L. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Functional annotation of class I lysyl-tRNA synthetase phylogeny indicates a limited role for gene transfer. Ambrogelly, A., Korencic, D., Ibba, M. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Structure and functional analysis of the microbial community in an aerobic: anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with no phosphorus removal. Kong, Y.H., Beer, M., Seviour, R.J., Lindrea, K.C., Rees, G.N. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Evolutionary relationship of phototrophic bacteria in the alpha-Proteobacteria based on farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Cantera, J.J., Kawasaki, H., Seki, T. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Two unusual chlorocatechol catabolic gene clusters in Sphingomonas sp. TFD44. Thiel, M., Kaschabek, S.R., Gröning, J., Mau, M., Schlömann, M. Arch. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Patients in the intensive care unit are exposed to amoeba-associated pathogens. La Scola, B., Mezi, L., Auffray, J.P., Berland, Y., Raoult, D. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America. (2002) [Pubmed]
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