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Chemical Compound Review

Arsaphen     (3-acetamido-4-hydroxy- phenyl)arsonic acid

Synonyms: Arsonine, Dynarsan, Ginarsol, Golarsyl, Gynoplix, ...
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Disease relevance of Arsaphen

  • The sigmoidal nature of the progress curve of postnuclear supernatant hemolysis, as well as synergistic interactions between fractions of amoebal whole cell extracts, suggests that the hemolytic activity has a multicomponent nature, with at least two and possibly three components participating in the hemolytic event [1].
  • Intranasal coadministration of the Cry1Ac protoxin with amoebal lysates increases protection against Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis [2].
  • A total of 40 (33%) of the 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from treated water were identified as described Legionella species and types, including L. bozemanii, L. worsleiensis, Legionella-like amoebal pathogen types, L. quateirensis, L. waltersii, and L. pneumophila [3].
  • Safety and efficacy of acetarsol suppositories in unresponsive proctitis [4].
  • Amoebal coculture of "Mycobacterium massiliense" sp. nov. from the sputum of a patient with hemoptoic pneumonia [5].

High impact information on Arsaphen

  • The mhcA- mutant of the amoebal stage of the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum, in which the myosin II gene has been deleted, cannot cap surface particles but can crawl along the substratum [6].
  • These potential amoebic virulence determinants were also toxic to human colonic epithelial cells, the primary cellular targets in amoebal invasion of the large intestine [7].
  • Western blots of two-dimensional gels of amoebal and flagellate proteins reveal that this antibody recognizes the alpha 3 tubulin isotype, which was previously shown to be formed by posttranslational modification (Green, L. L., and W. F. Dove, 1984, Mol. Cell. Biol., 4:1706-1711) [8].
  • We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology [9].
  • A comparison with the known promoter of unicellular eukaryotes, amoebal protists in particular, strongly suggests that the AAAATTGA motif is the structural equivalent of the TATA box core promoter element [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Arsaphen


Biological context of Arsaphen

  • In situ hybridization shows that one gene is expressed by the amoebal (host) nucleus and the other is expressed by the putative endosymbiont nucleus, suggesting that the latter is indeed a foreign genome [12].
  • Two Physarum amoebal strains, each with an rDNA recognizable by its restriction endonuclease cleavage pattern, were mated, the resulting diploid plasmodium was induced to sporulate, and haploid progeny clones were isolated from the germinated spores [13].
  • In order to ascertain whether, during conjugation, the plasmodial SPOC is derived from the amoebal one or is not related to it, we have constructed amoebal strains possessing two and three SPOCs and we have used as a genetic marker the frequency of polycentric metaphases in order to evaluate the number of SPOCs in the plasmodia [14].
  • Together these data provide the first evidence that autoactivation is mediated by Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction, leading to Ca2+ efflux, and that the late event of germination, amoebal emergence, requires Ca2+ uptake to proceed [15].
  • The results obtained substantiate the view that the switch from amoebal to plasmodial characteristics occurs over several nuclear division cycles [16].

Anatomical context of Arsaphen

  • Relationships between the structures of taxol and baccatine III derivatives and their in vitro action on the disassembly of mammalian brain and Physarum amoebal microtubules [17].
  • To identify components involved in the contact-mediated modulation of cAMP signaling, amoebal membranes were added to aggregation-competent amoebae in suspension [18].
  • These results are consistent with the following model: (1) plasmodial SPOCs are derived from the amoebal ones; and (2) one set of parental SPOCs is lost, destroyed or inactivated in the zygote [14].
  • They were present both in the preparations of amoebal centrosomes possessing two centrioles and in the preparations of plasmodial nuclear metaphases devoid of structurally distinct polar structures [19].
  • From these results we conclude that E. histolytica adhesion is an active process that depends on the amoebal cytoskeleton and metabolic energy and on the mobility of both amoebal and RBC surface ligands [20].

Associations of Arsaphen with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Arsaphen

  • Previous work has shown that three phases of germination, autoactivation, spore swelling and amoebal emergence, require the activity of the Ca(2+)-dependent, regulatory protein calmodulin, implicating Ca2+ as an essential cation during germination [15].
  • METHODS: 18S rDNA was polymerase chain reaction-amplified from whole cell DNA derived from amoebal lysates [26].
  • Among these mutants, some should contain electrophoretically altered tubulin, microtubule-associated proteins, or components of the amoebal cytoskeleton [27].
  • Southern-blot and RFLP analyses indicate that the gene involved, designated mlpA (myosin-like protein), occurs in a single copy in the genome, is a novel Physarum gene and is expressed during amoebal and plasmodial growth and in the dormant forms of both these cell types [28].
  • PEHPS avoids the variability shown by TPS-1 and TYI-S-33, and could therefore be a good alternative for axenic amoebal cultivation [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Arsaphen

  • However, the heavy chain and phosphorylatable light chains of amoebal myosin could be distinguished from those of plasmodial myosin in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, peptide mapping, and immunological studies, suggesting that these are different gene products [30].
  • Southern blotting experiments also showed that they hybridised to identical restriction fragments from amoebal and plasmodial DNAs indicating that genomic rearrangements are unlikely to be involved in the regulation of these genes [16].
  • We used flow cytometry to determine the distribution of DNA contents in amoebal cultures at intervals during vegetative growth and encystment [31].
  • Electron microscopy revealed that the amoebal trophozoites and cysts were almost completely filled with cells of this endosymbiont which are surrounded by a host-derived membrane [32].
  • No Chlamydia or Chlamydia-like organisms were recovered by amoebal coculture or detected by PCR [33].


  1. A multicomponent hemolytic system in the pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri. Lowrey, D.M., McLaughlin, J. Infect. Immun. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Intranasal coadministration of the Cry1Ac protoxin with amoebal lysates increases protection against Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis. Rojas-Hernández, S., Rodríguez-Monroy, M.A., López-Revilla, R., Reséndiz-Albor, A.A., Moreno-Fierros, L. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Occurrence and genetic diversity of uncultured Legionella spp. in drinking water treated at temperatures below 15 degrees C. Wullings, B.A., van der Kooij, D. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Safety and efficacy of acetarsol suppositories in unresponsive proctitis. Forbes, A., Britton, T.C., House, I.M., Gazzard, B.G. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Amoebal coculture of "Mycobacterium massiliense" sp. nov. from the sputum of a patient with hemoptoic pneumonia. Adékambi, T., Reynaud-Gaubert, M., Greub, G., Gevaudan, M.J., La Scola, B., Raoult, D., Drancourt, M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Surface particle transport mechanism independent of myosin II in Dictyostelium. Jay, P.Y., Elson, E.L. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Coding of hemolysins within the ribosomal RNA repeat on a plasmid in Entamoeba histolytica. Jansson, A., Gillin, F., Kagardt, U., Hagblom, P. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Distribution of acetylated alpha-tubulin in Physarum polycephalum. Diggins, M.A., Dove, W.F. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Pathogenic potential of novel Chlamydiae and diagnostic approaches to infections due to these obligate intracellular bacteria. Corsaro, D., Greub, G. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Mimivirus gene promoters exhibit an unprecedented conservation among all eukaryotes. Suhre, K., Audic, S., Claverie, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Control of hydatid disease in Wales. Palmer, S.R., Biffin, A.H., Craig, P.S., Walters, T.M. BMJ (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Evidence that an amoeba acquired a chloroplast by retaining part of an engulfed eukaryotic alga. McFadden, G.I., Gilson, P.R., Hofmann, C.J., Adcock, G.J., Maier, U.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Inheritance of extrachromosomal rDNA in Physarum polycephalum. Ferris, P.J., Vogt, V.M., Truitt, C.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetic analysis of the relationships between the amoebal extranuclear spindle-organizing centre and the plasmodial intranuclear spindle-organizing centre of Physarum during conjugation. Akhavan-Niaki, H., Mir, L., Oustrin, M.L., Moisand, A., Wright, M. J. Cell. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. The role of Ca2+ during spore germination in Dictyostelium: autoactivation is mediated by the mobilization of Ca2+ while amoebal emergence requires entry of external Ca2+. Lydan, M.A., Cotter, D.A. J. Cell. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential gene expression during the amoebal-plasmodial transition in Physarum. Sweeney, G.E., Watts, D.I., Turnock, G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Relationships between the structures of taxol and baccatine III derivatives and their in vitro action on the disassembly of mammalian brain and Physarum amoebal microtubules. Lataste, H., Senilh, V., Wright, M., Guénard, D., Potier, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Dictyostelium discoideum lipids modulate cell-cell cohesion and cyclic AMP signaling. Fontana, D.R., Luo, C.S., Phillips, J.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. A single gamma-tubulin gene and mRNA, but two gamma-tubulin polypeptides differing by their binding to the spindle pole organizing centres. Lajoie-Mazenc, I., Détraves, C., Rotaru, V., Garès, M., Tollon, Y., Jean, C., Julian, M., Wright, M., Raynaud-Messina, B. J. Cell. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Adhesion of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to human erythrocytes. López-Revilla, R., Cano-Mancera, R. Infect. Immun. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. A pathway for the interconversion of hexose and pentose in the parasitic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica. Susskind, B.M., Warren, L.G., Reeves, R.E. Biochem. J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Preliminary characterization of ribosomes of Entamoeba invadens. Price, M., Specht, C., Boudreau, R.E., Shaw, D.E., Weller, D.L. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Resistance of different Chlamydia-like organisms to quinolones and mutations in the quinoline resistance-determining region of the DNA gyrase A- and topoisomerase-encoding genes. Casson, N., Greub, G. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Evidence that hsp90 is involved in the altered interactions of Acanthamoeba castellanii variants with bacteria. Yan, L., Cerny, R.L., Cirillo, J.D. Eukaryotic Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. A correlation between in vivo and in vitro effects of the microtubule inhibitors colchicine, parbendazole and nocodazole on myxamoebae of Physarum polycephalum. Quinlan, R.A., Roobol, A., Pogson, C.I., Gull, K. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Acanthamoeba griffini. Molecular characterization of a new corneal pathogen. Ledee, D.R., Hay, J., Byers, T.J., Seal, D.V., Kirkness, C.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Biochemical and genetic approaches to microtubule function in Dictyostelium discoideum. White, E., Katz, E.R. Methods Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Identification, partial sequence and genetic analysis of mlpA, a novel gene encoding a myosin-related protein in Physarum polycephalum. Murray, M., Foxon, J., Sweeney, F., Orr, E. Curr. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. PEHPS medium: an alternative for axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica and E. invadens. Said-Fernández, S., Vargas-Villarreal, J., Castro-Garza, J., Mata-Cárdenas, B.D., Navarro-Marmolejo, L., Lozano-Garza, G., Martínez-Rodríguez, H. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Isolation and characterization of myosin from amoebae of Physarum polycephalum. Kohama, K., Takano-Ohmuro, H., Tanaka, T., Yamaguchi, Y., Kohama, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. G1-phase arrest is not a prerequisite for encystment in Physarum. Anderson, R.W., Dee, J., Foxon, J.L. Exp. Cell Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum as intracellular bacteria of acanthamoebae: proposal of 'Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus'. Horn, M., Harzenetter, M.D., Linner, T., Schmid, E.N., Müller, K.D., Michel, R., Wagner, M. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Biodiversity of amoebae and amoeba-resisting bacteria in a hospital water network. Thomas, V., Herrera-Rimann, K., Blanc, D.S., Greub, G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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