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MeSH Review

Metacarpal Bones

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Disease relevance of Metacarpal Bones


High impact information on Metacarpal Bones

  • Turner syndrome is characterized by short stature and is frequently associated with a variable spectrum of somatic features including ovarian failure, heart and renal abnormalities, micrognathia, cubitus valgus, high-arched palate, short metacarpals and Madelung deformity [4].
  • Expression of MMP-9 was also observed in in vivo osteoclasts in metacarpal bones of newborn rabbits by in situ hybridization [5].
  • 17beta-estradiol, however, inhibited significantly the PTH-stimulated resorption of osteoclast-free metacarpals cultured together with mouse fetal liver as a source of early osteoclast progenitors; basal resorption was also not inhibited in this system [6].
  • In metacarpals of older fetuses (18- and 19-day-old) in which the mineralized cartilage has been invaded by mature osteoclasts, the inhibition of resorption by LIF (1000 U/ml) was 87.9 and 74.7%, respectively, the latter being significantly less than the inhibition observed in 17-day-old metacarpal cultures [7].
  • In addition, LIF was found to inhibit growth, mineralization, and alkaline phosphatase activity in metacarpals independently of osteoclastic resorption [7].

Biological context of Metacarpal Bones

  • The present study was designed to determine bone density modifications at the forearm and metacarpal bones in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) [8].
  • The comparative analysis of the girl's phenotype in different developmental stages has revealed that microcephaly, flat occipital region, face asymmetry, wide spaced palpebral fissures, epicanthic folds, small mouth fissure, thin mucous lip, small and low set ears and short IV metacarpals has not changed with advancing age [9].

Anatomical context of Metacarpal Bones


Associations of Metacarpal Bones with chemical compounds

  • In vitro, when tested in osteoclast precursor-dependent systems (fetal mouse metacarpals and a coculture system), EB-1053 suppressed 45Ca release effectively and was found to be about 10 times more potent than pamidronate (ED50 = 2.5 x 10(-7) versus 2.5 x 10(-6) M, respectively) [14].
  • The effect on cortical bone loss of treating elderly women with 15,000 IU vitamin D2 weekly was evaluated by sequential radiographic morphometry of the metacarpals [15].
  • However, receptive fields with a focus on the ventral side of either the metacarpals, the wrist or the forearm were found only in the medial part of the C3 zone [16].
  • The most characteristic radiographic signs are incomplete ossification of the vertebral bodies with coronal clefts of the lumbar and hypoplasia of the upper thoracic vertebral bodies, a distal hypoplasia and club shape of the humerus and the femur, and the lack of ossification of single phalanges and metacarpals in most patients [17].
  • Uptake of 99mTc pyrophosphate was measured in the midthird of the radius, ulna femur and metacarpal bones of 22 men with rheumatoid arthritis and 18 control subjects [18].

Gene context of Metacarpal Bones

  • These findings suggest that haploinsufficiency of SHOX causes not only short stature but also Turner skeletal anomalies (such as short 4th metacarpals, cubitus valgus, and LWD) and that growth pattern is primarily dependent on the presence or absence of LWD [19].
  • Significant IL-6 activity was also detected in media of cultures of 17-day-old fetal mouse radii and metacarpals which was clearly stimulated by PTH [20].
  • However, a tPA-mutant missing the growth-factor-like domain of the molecule, failed to stimulate 45Ca-release from the metacarpals [21].
  • Leukemia inhibitory factor inhibits osteoclastic resorption, growth, mineralization, and alkaline phosphatase activity in fetal mouse metacarpal bones in culture [7].
  • Overall, bone length median values revealed shortening below -2 SDS in all metacarpals and all distal phalanges, i.e. brachymetacarpia and brachytelephalangy, that cluster together [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Metacarpal Bones

  • It is concluded that during growth in width the metacarpals move away from the midline of the hand and that growth occurs through eccentric bone apposition rather than through soft tissue expansion [23].


  1. Split-hand/split-foot malformation is caused by mutations in the p63 gene on 3q27. Ianakiev, P., Kilpatrick, M.W., Toudjarska, I., Basel, D., Beighton, P., Tsipouras, P. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Sensorineural deafness, hypospadias, and synostosis of metacarpals and metatarsals 4 and 5: a previously apparently undescribed MCA/MR syndrome. Pfeiffer, R.A., Kapferer, L. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Oral-facial-digital syndrome with Y-shaped fourth metacarpals and endocardial cushion defect. Hsieh, Y.C., Hou, J.W. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The short stature homeobox gene SHOX is involved in skeletal abnormalities in Turner syndrome. Clement-Jones, M., Schiller, S., Rao, E., Blaschke, R.J., Zuniga, A., Zeller, R., Robson, S.C., Binder, G., Glass, I., Strachan, T., Lindsay, S., Rappold, G.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in rabbit osteoclasts. Tezuka, K., Nemoto, K., Tezuka, Y., Sato, T., Ikeda, Y., Kobori, M., Kawashima, H., Eguchi, H., Hakeda, Y., Kumegawa, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. In vitro and ex vivo evidence that estrogens suppress increased bone resorption induced by ovariectomy or PTH stimulation through an effect on osteoclastogenesis. Most, W., Schot, L., Ederveen, A., van der Wee-Pals, L., Papapoulos, S., Löwik, C. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Leukemia inhibitory factor inhibits osteoclastic resorption, growth, mineralization, and alkaline phosphatase activity in fetal mouse metacarpal bones in culture. Van Beek, E., Van der Wee-Pals, L., van de Ruit, M., Nijweide, P., Papapoulos, S., Löwik, C. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Carpal tunnel syndrome leads to significant bone loss in metacarpal bones. Erselcan, T., Topalkara, K., Nacitarhan, V., Akyuz, A., Dogan, D. J. Bone Miner. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. A natural history of a child with monosomy 5p syndrome (Cat-cry/Cri-du-chat syndrome) during the 18 years of follow-up. Posmyk, R., Panasiuk, B., Yatsenko, S.A., Stankiewicz, P., Midro, A.T. Genetic counseling (Geneva, Switzerland) (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of testosterone on skeletal growth in lambs as assessed by labeling index of chondrocytes in the metacarpal bone growth plate. Peralta, J.M., Arnold, A.M., Currie, W.B., Thonney, M.L. J. Anim. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Analysis of novel and recurrent mutations responsible for the tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndromes. Hilton, M.J., Sawyer, J.M., Gutiérrez, L., Hogart, A., Kung, T.C., Wells, D.E. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. The effects of various load paths and different loads on the load transfer characteristics of the wrist. Viegas, S.F., Patterson, R., Peterson, P., Roefs, J., Tencer, A., Choi, S. The Journal of hand surgery. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Sensorineural deafness, abnormal genitalia, synostosis of metacarpals and metatarsals 4 and 5, and mental retardation: description of a second patient and exclusion of HOXD13. Mendioroz, J., Fernández-Toral, J., Suárez, E., López-Grondona, F., Kjaer, K.W., Bermejo, E., Martínez-Frías, M.L. Am. J. Med. Genet. A (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Disodium 1-hydroxy-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-propylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (EB-1053) is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. van der Pluijm, G., Binderup, L., Bramm, E., van der Wee-Pals, L., De Groot, H., Binderup, E., Löwik, C., Papapoulos, S. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. A prospective trial of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on metacarpal bone loss in elderly women. Nordin, B.E., Baker, M.R., Horsman, A., Peacock, M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Topography and nociceptive receptive fields of climbing fibres projecting to the cerebellar anterior lobe in the cat. Ekerot, C.F., Garwicz, M., Schouenborg, J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Atelosteogenesis. Maroteaux, P., Spranger, J., Stanescu, V., Le Marec, B., Pfeiffer, R.A., Beighton, P., Mattei, J.F. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Investigation of the metabolic acitivity of bone in rheumatoid arthritis. Rosenspire, K.C., Kennedy, A.C., Steinbach, J., Blau, M., Green, F.A. J. Rheumatol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Skeletal features and growth patterns in 14 patients with haploinsufficiency of SHOX: implications for the development of Turner syndrome. Kosho, T., Muroya, K., Nagai, T., Fujimoto, M., Yokoya, S., Sakamoto, H., Hirano, T., Terasaki, H., Ohashi, H., Nishimura, G., Sato, S., Matsuo, N., Ogata, T. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-like protein (PLP) stimulate interleukin-6 production by osteogenic cells: a possible role of interleukin-6 in osteoclastogenesis. Löwik, C.W., van der Pluijm, G., Bloys, H., Hoekman, K., Bijvoet, O.L., Aarden, L.A., Papapoulos, S.E. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) on osteoclastic resorption in embryonic mouse long bone explants: a possible role for the growth factor domain of tPA. Hoekman, K., Löwik, C.W., van de Ruit, M., Bijvoet, O.L., Verheijen, J.H., Papapoulos, S.E. Bone and mineral. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Brachydactyly in 14 genetically characterized pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia patients. de Sanctis, L., Vai, S., Andreo, M.R., Romagnolo, D., Silvestro, L., de Sanctis, C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Growth in width of the metacarpals--an investigation in human fetuses. Uhthoff, H.K., Trudel, G., Matsumoto, F. J. Orthop. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
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