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Gene Review

TNR1  -  Turner syndrome 1

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of TNR1


Psychiatry related information on TNR1


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Chemical compound and disease context of TNR1


Biological context of TNR1


Anatomical context of TNR1


Associations of TNR1 with chemical compounds

  • As an important therapeutic consideration, we describe psychologically detrimental effects of delayed estrogen treatment with an older Turner syndrome patient [4].
  • To examine this further, we investigated temporal lobe morphology, metabolism and function in nine children with non-mosaic Turner syndrome using magnetic resonance imaging, (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and neuropsychological testing and compared outcomes with results from nine age-matched control girls (46,XX) [27].
  • Impaired glucose tolerance was present in most Turner syndrome patients (6 of 10), but not in the control subjects [28].
  • Androgen-responsive aspects of cognition in girls with Turner syndrome [14].
  • METHODS: One hundred fifty-four girls with Turner syndrome, aged 7-13 yr, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1) GH by sc injection six times per week (0.30 mg/kg.wk), and 2) control (C), no GH treatment [29].

Physical interactions of TNR1


Other interactions of TNR1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TNR1


  1. Turner syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Weinrieb, I.J., Fineman, R.M., Spiro, H.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Insurance coverage, physician recommendations, and access to emerging treatments: growth hormone therapy for childhood short stature. Finkelstein, B.S., Silvers, J.B., Marrero, U., Neuhauser, D., Cuttler, L. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Anorexia nervosa and gonadal dysgenesis. Further evidence of a relationship. Kron, L., Katz, J.L., Gorzynski, G., Weiner, H. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Lateralized neurologic deficits and psychopathology in a Turner syndrome patient. Kolb, J.E., Heaton, R.K. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Chromosomal abnormalities among offspring of childhood-cancer survivors in Denmark: a population-based study. Winther, J.F., Boice, J.D., Mulvihill, J.J., Stovall, M., Frederiksen, K., Tawn, E.J., Olsen, J.H. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. The severe phenotype of females with tiny ring X chromosomes is associated with inability of these chromosomes to undergo X inactivation. Migeon, B.R., Luo, S., Jani, M., Jeppesen, P. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Self-concept and behavior in adolescent girls with Turner syndrome: potential estrogen effects. Ross, J.L., McCauley, E., Roeltgen, D., Long, L., Kushner, H., Feuillan, P., Cutler, G.B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Self-esteem and social adjustment in young women with Turner syndrome--influence of pubertal management and sexuality: population-based cohort study. Carel, J.C., Elie, C., Ecosse, E., Tauber, M., Léger, J., Cabrol, S., Nicolino, M., Brauner, R., Chaussain, J.L., Coste, J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Cardiac malformations and hypertension, but not metabolic risk factors, are common in Turner syndrome. Landin-Wilhelmsen, K., Bryman, I., Wilhelmsen, L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Juvenile onset narcolepsy in an individual with Turner syndrome. A case report. George, C.F., Singh, S.M. Sleep. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of a cluster of X-linked imprinted genes in mice. Raefski, A.S., O'Neill, M.J. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Pseudoautosomal deletions encompassing a novel homeobox gene cause growth failure in idiopathic short stature and Turner syndrome. Rao, E., Weiss, B., Fukami, M., Rump, A., Niesler, B., Mertz, A., Muroya, K., Binder, G., Kirsch, S., Winkelmann, M., Nordsiek, G., Heinrich, U., Breuning, M.H., Ranke, M.B., Rosenthal, A., Ogata, T., Rappold, G.A. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Bone mineral density and fractures in Turner syndrome. Bakalov, V.K., Chen, M.L., Baron, J., Hanton, L.B., Reynolds, J.C., Stratakis, C.A., Axelrod, L.E., Bondy, C.A. Am. J. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Androgen-responsive aspects of cognition in girls with Turner syndrome. Ross, J.L., Roeltgen, D., Stefanatos, G.A., Feuillan, P., Kushner, H., Bondy, C., Cutler Jr, G.B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Low-dose testosterone effect on somatic growth. Rosenfield, R.L. Pediatrics (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Responses to constant infusion of LH-RH in girls with primary hypogonadism. Reiter, E.O., Duckett, G.E., Root, A.W. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Homologous ribosomal protein genes on the human X and Y chromosomes: escape from X inactivation and possible implications for Turner syndrome. Fisher, E.M., Beer-Romero, P., Brown, L.G., Ridley, A., McNeil, J.A., Lawrence, J.B., Willard, H.F., Bieber, F.R., Page, D.C. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. A physical map of the human Y chromosome. Tilford, C.A., Kuroda-Kawaguchi, T., Skaletsky, H., Rozen, S., Brown, L.G., Rosenberg, M., McPherson, J.D., Wylie, K., Sekhon, M., Kucaba, T.A., Waterston, R.H., Page, D.C. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Cytogenetic studies in reproductive loss. Schmidt, R., Nitowsky, H.M., Dar, H. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Meiosis and sex chromosome aneuploidy: how meiotic errors cause aneuploidy; how aneuploidy causes meiotic errors. Hall, H., Hunt, P., Hassold, T. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Turner syndrome: the case of the missing sex chromosome. Zinn, A.R., Page, D.C., Fisher, E.M. Trends Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Amniotic-fluid alpha-fetoprotein in Turner syndrome. Sutherland, G.R., Holt, D., Rogers, J.G. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Attitudes of genetic counselors: a multinational survey. Wertz, D.C., Fletcher, J.C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Quantitative analysis of sex-chromosome mosaicism with X-Y DNA probes. Disteche, C.M., Saal, H., Friedman, C., Sybert, V., Thuline, H. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Evidence for a Turner syndrome locus or loci at Xp11.2-p22.1. Zinn, A.R., Tonk, V.S., Chen, Z., Flejter, W.L., Gardner, H.A., Guerra, R., Kushner, H., Schwartz, S., Sybert, V.P., Van Dyke, D.L., Ross, J.L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. A unique dicentric X;Y translocation with Xq and Yp breakpoints: cytogenetic and molecular studies. Bernstein, R., Rosendorff, J., Ramsay, M., Pinto, M.R., Page, D.C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Enlarged temporal lobes in Turner syndrome: an X-chromosome effect? Rae, C., Joy, P., Harasty, J., Kemp, A., Kuan, S., Christodoulou, J., Cowell, C.T., Coltheart, M. Cereb. Cortex (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Muscle fiber composition and capillary density in Turner syndrome: evidence of increased muscle fiber size related to insulin resistance. Gravholt, C.H., Nyholm, B., Saltin, B., Schmitz, O., Christiansen, J.S. Diabetes Care (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Impact of growth hormone supplementation on adult height in turner syndrome: results of the Canadian randomized controlled trial. Stephure, D.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Normal somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I binding and action in cultured human fibroblasts from Turner syndrome. Rosenfeld, R.G., Dollar, L.A., Hintz, R.L., Conover, C. Acta Endocrinol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Short arm rearrangements of sex chromosomes with haploinsufficiency of the SHOX gene are associated with Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. Palka, G., Stuppia, L., Guanciali Franchi, P., Chiarelli, F., Fischetto, R., Borrelli, P., Giannotti, A., Fioretti, G., Rinaldi, M.M., Mingarelli, R., Rappold, G.A., Calabrese, G. Clin. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Functional equivalence of human X- and Y-encoded isoforms of ribosomal protein S4 consistent with a role in Turner syndrome. Watanabe, M., Zinn, A.R., Page, D.C., Nishimoto, T. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. A mutation in the 5' non-high mobility group box region of the SRY gene in patients with Turner syndrome and Y mosaicism. Canto, P., de la Chesnaye, E., López, M., Cervantes, A., Chávez, B., Vilchis, F., Reyes, E., Ulloa-Aguirre, A., Kofman-Alfaro, S., Méndez, J.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Xp pseudoautosomal gene haploinsufficiency and linear growth deficiency in three girls with chromosome Xp22;Yq11 translocation. Joseph, M., Cantú, E.S., Pai, G.S., Willi, S.M., Papenhausen, P.R., Weiss, L. J. Med. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and 45,X: implications for postnatal outcome. Koeberl, D.D., McGillivray, B., Sybert, V.P. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Diagnosis of Down syndrome and other aneuploidies using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and small tandem repeat polymorphisms. Mansfield, E.S. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Coarctation of the aorta: outcome of pregnancy. Beauchesne, L.M., Connolly, H.M., Ammash, N.M., Warnes, C.A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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