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MeSH Review

Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype

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Disease relevance of Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype


High impact information on Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype

  • Point mutations were introduced into the epitopes derived from the NP and PA such that they no longer bound the presenting H2Db MHC class I glycoprotein, and reassortant H1N1 and H3N2 viruses were made by reverse genetics [6].
  • METHODS: Ten influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated during the outbreaks were examined for resistance to amantadine and rimantadine by means of an enzyme immunoassay and by sequencing of the viral nucleic acid that encodes the transmembrane domain of the M2 protein [7].
  • The seroreactivity levels in swine serum samples and the nucleotide sequences of six additional 1999 isolates, all of which were of the triple-reassortant genotype, suggested that H3N2 viruses containing avian PA and PB2 genes had spread throughout much of the country [8].
  • Antibodies to neuraminidase may contribute to the enhanced uptake of viruses of a different subtype, because N2-specific monoclonal antibodies augmented the uptake of both A/Japan/305/57 (H2N2) and A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) viruses [9].
  • Ferrets as a transmission model for influenza: sequence changes in HA1 of type A (H3N2) virus [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype

  • Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of parenteral monovalent influenza A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) virus vaccine in healthy adults [11].
  • T cell lines, established from mice primed by intranasal infection with X31 (H3N2) virus, were cross-stimulated with natural variant viruses of known primary sequence (either A/TEXAS/1/77 or A/ENG878/69) and proliferating cells eliminated by treatment with the cell cycle-specific drug 5-bromodeoxyuridine [12].
  • Thirty-nine influenza A (H1N1) and (H3N2) virus isolates were examined for their susceptibility to amantadine in allantois-on-shell (AOS) cultures [13].
  • The smallest RNA (RNA 8) of the A/Ann Arbor/6/60 virus may be distinguished from RNA 8 of several H3N2 viruses by acrylamide gel electrophoresis in 3% or 3-6% gels in the absence of urea, if electrophoresis is done at 30 to 36 degrees C or 20 degrees C respectively [5].
  • When subjected to electrophoresis at 33 degrees C in 3% polyacrylamide gels with no urea added, the nucleoprotein and neuraminidase genes of an H2N2 and H3N2 virus migrate as RNA bands 5 and 6 respectively [14].

Biological context of Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype


Anatomical context of Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype


Gene context of Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype

  • In contrast to the well-characterized laboratory strain A/PR/8/34, several, but not all, recent isolates of H3N2 viruses resulted in moderate IFN-beta stimulation [19].
  • Twenty-six infants from whom cord sera were available had culture-documented infections with influenza A/Victoria (H3N2) virus when younger than four months [20].
  • Infection with influenza H3N2 viruses circulating during this study occurred with comparable low frequency in CF patients after ca (14 infections/100 subject-years of observation) or triv vaccine (10 infections/100 subject-years of observation) [21].
  • The H3N2 viruses presently circulating in the U.S. swine population are triple reassortants containing avian-like (PA and PB2), swine-like (M, NP, and NS), and human-like (HA, NA, and PB1) gene segments [22].
  • The California (H1N1) strain isolated in 1978 had acquired by reassortment the NP gene of a human H3N2 virus circulating at about 1977 as had been previously suggested by investigations involving RNase fingerprint or hybridization techniques [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype

  • When the TR FIA was performed with 96 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens collected during outbreaks of influenza A (H3N2) virus and the results were compared with serodiagnosis results with paired sera, the specificity and sensitivity of TR FIA for the demonstration of influenza A infections were 95 and 85%, respectively [24].
  • The optimal conditions required to obtain the maximum recovery of HA and NA activity from purified influenza X47 (H3N2) virus concentrate after treatment with Empigen, and the nature and the morphological appearance of the Empigen-treated preparations both before and following a sucrose density gradient purification step, are described [25].
  • The NA genes of H3N2 viruses used for primary infection or vaccination showed higher amino acid homology with H1N2 (88.3-92.6%), while nucleoprotein (95.5-96.3% nucleotide identity) and matrix (96.8-98.4%) genes were most conserved between the three subtypes [26].
  • Healthy, nonsmoking, young adult volunteers who were seronegative to influenza A/Korea/82 (H3N2) virus were randomly assigned to breathe either filtered clean air (control group) or NO2 for 2 h/day for 3 consecutive days [27].


  1. Occurrence of temperature-sensitive influenza A viruses in nature. Chu, C.M., Tian, S.F., Ren, G.F., Zhang, Y.M., Zhang, L.X., Liu, G.Q. J. Virol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Formation of antibody to matrix protein in experimental human influenza A virus infections. Cretescu, L., Beare, A.S., Schild, G.C. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Virulence of rimantadine-resistant human influenza A (H3N2) viruses in ferrets. Sweet, C., Hayden, F.G., Jakeman, K.J., Grambas, S., Hay, A.J. J. Infect. Dis. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Resistance of influenza A virus to amantadine and rimantadine: results of one decade of surveillance. Belshe, R.B., Burk, B., Newman, F., Cerruti, R.L., Sim, I.S. J. Infect. Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparative studies of wild-type and 'cold-mutant' (temperature sensitive) influenza viruses: geneology of the matrix (M) and non-structural (NS) proteins in recombinant cold-adapted H3N2 viruses. Kendal, A.P., Cox, N.J., Murphy, B.R., Spring, S.B., Maassab, H.F. J. Gen. Virol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Protection and compensation in the influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell response. Webby, R.J., Andreansky, S., Stambas, J., Rehg, J.E., Webster, R.G., Doherty, P.C., Turner, S.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Amantadine-resistant influenza A in nursing homes. Identification of a resistant virus prior to drug use. Houck, P., Hemphill, M., LaCroix, S., Hirsh, D., Cox, N. Arch. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Evolution of swine H3N2 influenza viruses in the United States. Webby, R.J., Swenson, S.L., Krauss, S.L., Gerrish, P.J., Goyal, S.M., Webster, R.G. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Subtype cross-reactive, infection-enhancing antibody responses to influenza A viruses. Tamura, M., Webster, R.G., Ennis, F.A. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Ferrets as a transmission model for influenza: sequence changes in HA1 of type A (H3N2) virus. Herlocher, M.L., Elias, S., Truscon, R., Harrison, S., Mindell, D., Simon, C., Monto, A.S. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of parenteral monovalent influenza A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) virus vaccine in healthy adults. Caplan, E.S., Hughes, T.P., O'Donnel, S., Levine, M.M., Hornick, R.B. J. Infect. Dis. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Suicide selection of murine T helper clones specific for variable regions of the influenza hemagglutinin molecule. Thomas, D.B., Skehel, J.J., Mills, K.H., Graham, C.M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Amantadine resistance in clinical influenza A (H3N2) and (H1N1) virus isolates. Pemberton, R.M., Jennings, R., Potter, C.W., Oxford, J.S. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of temperature on the order of electrophoretic migration of influenza virus neuraminidase and nucleoprotein genes in acrylamide gels lacking denaturing agents. Cox, N.J., Kendal, A.P. J. Gen. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Efficacy of purified influenza subunit vaccines and relation to the major antigenic determinants on the hemagglutinin molecule. Couch, R.B., Webster, R.G., Kasel, J.A., Cate, T.R. J. Infect. Dis. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Amino acid sequence identity between the HA1 of influenza A (H3N2) viruses grown in mammalian and primary chick kidney cells. Katz, J.M., Webster, R.G. J. Gen. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Surfactant protein A, but not surfactant protein D, is an opsonin for influenza A virus phagocytosis by rat alveolar macrophages. Benne, C.A., Benaissa-Trouw, B., van Strijp, J.A., Kraaijeveld, C.A., van Iwaarden, J.F. Eur. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Induction of interferon in human leukocyte cultures by natural pathogenic respiratory viruses. Pitkäranta, A., Hovi, T. J. Interferon Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Variation in the ability of human influenza A viruses to induce and inhibit the IFN-beta pathway. Hayman, A., Comely, S., Lackenby, A., Murphy, S., McCauley, J., Goodbourn, S., Barclay, W. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Protection of infants from infection with influenza A virus by transplacentally acquired antibody. Puck, J.M., Glezen, W.P., Frank, A.L., Six, H.R. J. Infect. Dis. (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparison of live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines in cystic fibrosis patients and their families: results of a 3-year study. Gruber, W.C., Campbell, P.W., Thompson, J.M., Reed, G.W., Roberts, B., Wright, P.F. J. Infect. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Pathogenic and antigenic properties of phylogenetically distinct reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses cocirculating in the United States. Richt, J.A., Lager, K.M., Janke, B.H., Woods, R.D., Webster, R.G., Webby, R.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Biological and genetic evolution of the nucleoprotein gene of human influenza A viruses. Altmüller, A., Fitch, W.M., Scholtissek, C. J. Gen. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay with monoclonal antibodies for rapid diagnosis of influenza infections. Walls, H.H., Johansson, K.H., Harmon, M.W., Halonen, P.E., Kendal, A.P. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Use of zwitterionic detergent for the preparation of an influenza virus vaccine. 1: Preparation and characterization of disrupted virions. Crawford, C.R., Mukhlis, F.A., Jennings, R., Oxford, J.S., Hockley, D.J., Potter, C.W. Vaccine (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Genetic relationships, serological cross-reaction and cross-protection between H1N2 and other influenza A virus subtypes endemic in European pigs. Reeth, K.V., Brown, I., Essen, S., Pensaert, M. Virus Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of nitrogen dioxide exposure on susceptibility to influenza A virus infection in healthy adults. Goings, S.A., Kulle, T.J., Bascom, R., Sauder, L.R., Green, D.J., Hebel, J.R., Clements, M.L. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
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