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Disease relevance of Hermaphroditism


Psychiatry related information on Hermaphroditism


High impact information on Hermaphroditism

  • Atrazine (> or =0.1 ppb) induced hermaphroditism and demasculinized the larynges of exposed males (> or =1.0 ppb) [4].
  • The origin of the patient's intersexuality is a postzygotic mutation of the SRY occurring in part of the gonadal tissue [5].
  • Intersexuality is always correlated with the presence of cytoplasmic viral particles in both intersex-female and transmitter-male tissues [6].
  • To address this issue, we have studied the mouse Y chromosome on the BALB/cWt ('Wt') inbred background, a system in which loss of the Y chromosome in gonadal tissue has been linked to hermaphroditism [7].
  • In order to fully capture the dynamic processes of germ cells' proliferation and juvenile hermaphroditism in zebrafish, we established transgenic lines TG(beta-actin:EGFP), harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene driven by a medaka beta-actin promoter [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Hermaphroditism

  • Normally occurring intersexuality and testosterone induced plasticity in the copulatory system of adult leopard geckos [9].
  • Intersexuality in five pigs, with particular reference to oestrous cycles, the ovotestis, steroid hormone secretion and potential fertility [10].
  • Conversely, MSH cell amount varied according to the stage of the sexual cycle of this teleost fish, which is characterised by protandrous hermaphroditism [11].

Biological context of Hermaphroditism


Anatomical context of Hermaphroditism

  • Gudgeon were collected from the Rivers Aire and Lea (at locations that receive high-volume discharges of sewage treatment works [STW] effluent and that contain intersex roach) and from two still waters, and their gonads were examined histologically for evidence of intersexuality (the simultaneous presence of oocytes and testicular tissue) [14].

Gene context of Hermaphroditism

  • fog-2 and the evolution of self-fertile hermaphroditism in Caenorhabditis [15].
  • Our data indicate that the regulation of the hermaphrodite germline sex determination pathway at the level of FOG-2/GLD-1/tra-2 mRNA is fundamentally different between C. elegans and C. briggsae, providing functional evidence in support of the independent evolution of self-fertile hermaphroditism [15].
  • In some of these experiments, the occurrence of various degrees of gonadal intersexuality is related to weak differences in aromatase activity, suggesting subtle regulations of the aromatase gene at the transcription level [16].
  • The classification of intersexuality was determined in 10 patients with an intersex disorder who subsequently suffered a Wilms tumor [17].
  • To our knowledge this is the first case of MDS, EMD and hermaphroditism [18].


  1. Atrazine-induced hermaphroditism at 0.1 ppb in American leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): laboratory and field evidence. Hayes, T., Haston, K., Tsui, M., Hoang, A., Haeffele, C., Vonk, A. Environ. Health Perspect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. HCG stimulation test in children with abnormal sexual development. Grant, D.B., Laurance, B.M., Atherden, S.M., Ryness, J. Arch. Dis. Child. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Gender identity in XY intersexuality. Sobel, V., Imperato-McGinley, J. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses. Hayes, T.B., Collins, A., Lee, M., Mendoza, M., Noriega, N., Stuart, A.A., Vonk, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. True hermaphroditism in a 46,XY individual, caused by a postzygotic somatic point mutation in the male gonadal sex-determining locus (SRY): molecular genetics and histological findings in a sporadic case. Braun, A., Kammerer, S., Cleve, H., Löhrs, U., Schwarz, H.P., Kuhnle, U. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Masculinization of female isopods (Crustacea) correlated with non-Mendelian inheritance of cytoplasmic viruses. Juchault, P., Louis, C., Martin, G., Noulin, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Analysis of a malsegregating mouse Y chromosome: evidence that the earliest cleavage divisions of the mammalian embryo are non-disjunction-prone. Bean, C.J., Hunt, P.A., Millie, E.A., Hassold, T.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Transgenic zebrafish with fluorescent germ cell: a useful tool to visualize germ cell proliferation and juvenile hermaphroditism in vivo. Hsiao, C.D., Tsai, H.J. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Normally occurring intersexuality and testosterone induced plasticity in the copulatory system of adult leopard geckos. Holmes, M.M., Putz, O., Crews, D., Wade, J. Hormones and behavior. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Intersexuality in five pigs, with particular reference to oestrous cycles, the ovotestis, steroid hormone secretion and potential fertility. Hunter, R.H., Cook, B., Baker, T.G. J. Endocrinol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunohistochemical detection of ACTH and MSH cells in the hypophysis of the hermaphroditic teleost, Diplodus sargus. Ferrandino, I., Pica, A., Grimaldi, M.C. European journal of histochemistry : EJH. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Lack of the SOX9 gene polymorphism in sex reversal dogs (78,XX; SRY negative). Nowacka, J., Nizanski, W., Klimowicz, M., Dzimira, S., Switonski, M. J. Hered. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Etiology of homosexuality. Headings, V.E. South. Med. J. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Sexual disruption in a second species of wild cyprinid fish (the gudgeon, Gobio gobio) in United Kingdom freshwaters. van Aerle, R., Nolan, T.M., Jobling, S., Christiansen, L.B., Sumpter, J.P., Tyler, C.R. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. fog-2 and the evolution of self-fertile hermaphroditism in Caenorhabditis. Nayak, S., Goree, J., Schedl, T. PLoS Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Temperature-dependent sex determination and gonadal differentiation in reptiles. Pieau, C., Dorizzi, M., Richard-Mercier, N. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Association between Wilms tumor and gonadal dysgenesis. Rajfer, J. J. Urol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Granulocytic sarcoma of the ovotestis: an association of myelodysplastic syndrome and hermaphroditism. Bolaman, Z., Kadikoylu, G., Kafkas, S., Kacar, F. Leuk. Lymphoma (2004) [Pubmed]
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