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Disease relevance of Homosexuality


Psychiatry related information on Homosexuality

  • Referenced as both supporting and weakening the case for parenting by homosexuals, 57 life-story narratives of children with homosexual parents published by Rafkin in 1990 and Saffron in 1996 were subjected to content analysis [6].
  • The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of social interaction with homosexuals on attitudes toward homosexuality in a sample of heterosexual Turkish university students [7].
  • Against the background of rapidly changing social and professional attitudes toward homosexuality, and in light of burgeoning interest in countertransference among psychoanalysts, the absence of any discussion of countertransference in the treatment of homosexuals is considered significant [8].

High impact information on Homosexuality


Chemical compound and disease context of Homosexuality


Biological context of Homosexuality

  • At this age the SCN contains about the same number of cells as the SCN of adult male homosexuals, whereas in the reference group the cell numbers subsequently decline to the adult value, which is about 35% of the peak value.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[19]
  • The eight hemophiliacs with ITP responded better than did the eight homosexual ITP patients; their mean peak platelet count was 227,000/microliter versus 142,000/microliter in the homosexuals [20].
  • A larger proportion of the IVDUs, with respect to that of homosexuals, showed positive antibody responses to p24 and p17, respectively [21].
  • There are important reasons for considering nitrite inhalation as a factor in the development of AIDS-related KS in young male homosexuals [22].
  • In the second study, 40 black, male homosexuals with CD4+ count between 350 and 500/mm3 were enrolled in groups of 10 to receive either nHuIFN-alpha or AZT, or both nHuIFN-alpha and AZT, or nothing (untreated controls) [23].

Anatomical context of Homosexuality


Associations of Homosexuality with chemical compounds

  • There were no significant differences between homosexuals and controls in relation to the average levels of the tested hormones nor the average area and variance of LH and testosterone [27].
  • We compared OR levels in 80 HIV-positive homosexuals, 18 HIV-positive intravenous drug users (IVDU) treated with methadone, 18 HIV-negative IVDU receiving methadone and 25 healthy controls [28].
  • These results suggest the feasibility of eventual prophylactic utilization of isoprinosine in male homosexuals at high risk of developing AIDS [29].
  • In crude analysis, baseline TG was higher in men, in those aged over 36 years, and in homosexuals [30].
  • Of the strains isolated from male homosexuals, 19.5% were resistant to 1.0 microgram of erythromycin/ml, whereas only 9.6% of strains from other men and 2.6% of strains from women were resistant to this concentration [31].

Gene context of Homosexuality

  • IL-2 production following lectin stimulation was not significantly different in homosexuals compared to age matched heterosexual controls [32].
  • Cells from antibody-positive homosexuals with normal numbers of CD4 cells (greater than 700/microliters) showed defective reactivity in two assays, colony growth, and IL-2 receptor expression [33].
  • Eleven patients (42%) had C4B null alleles compared with only 13 (18%) homosexuals who were negative for antibody and 28 (15%) controls [34].
  • Defective T cell colony formation and IL-2 receptor expression in HIV-infected homosexuals: relationship between functional abnormalities and CD4 cell numbers [33].
  • Subjects' affects were measured with an adjective checklist, and subjects' cognitions were measured as to their attitudes toward homosexuality with the Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Scale (ATHS) [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Homosexuality

  • Antibodies reactive with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells were detected by Western blot analysis in sera from both groups of homosexuals [36].
  • We investigated the serum concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), cholesterol, phopholipids and triglycerides in HIV-positive men (n = 50) from three behaviour groups: heterosexuals (n = 16), drug addicts (n = 18) and homosexuals (n = 16) and a control group of HIV-negative men (n = 25) [37].
  • We have measured fat absorption, using the 14C triolein breath test, and quantitatively assessed jejunal villous architecture in 20 male homosexuals at various clinical stages of HIV disease [38].
  • Vincent and the Grenadines, and other countries show high HIV seroprevalence among homosexuals (15-40%), prisoners (4-10%), prostitutes (up to 13%), and cocaine users (2%); at present, prevalence in the general population continues to be low [39].


  1. Spontaneous clearance and reactivation of hepatitis B virus infection among male homosexuals with chronic type B hepatitis. Perrillo, R.P., Campbell, C.R., Sanders, G.E., Regenstein, F.G., Bodicky, C.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Elevated adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity in peripheral blood null lymphocytes from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Murray, J.L., Loftin, K.C., Munn, C.G., Reuben, J.M., Mansell, P.W., Hersh, E.M. Blood (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Altered excretion of modified nucleosides and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in subjects with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Borek, E., Sharma, O.K., Buschman, F.L., Cohn, D.L., Penley, K.A., Judson, F.N., Dobozin, B.S., Horsburgh, C.R., Kirkpatrick, C.H. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. HIV encephalitis, proviral load and dementia in drug users and homosexuals with AIDS. Effect of neocortical involvement. Bell, J.E., Brettle, R.P., Chiswick, A., Simmonds, P. Brain (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunoglobulin subclasses of antibodies to human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus I-associated antigens in acquired immune deficiency syndrome and lymphadenopathy syndrome. Goudsmit, J., Miedema, F., Wijngaarden-du Bois, R.J., Roos, M.T., Schellekens, P.T., Coutinho, R.A., van der Noordaa, J., Melief, C.J. J. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Children of homosexual parents report childhood difficulties. Cameron, P., Cameron, K. Psychological reports. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of social contact with homosexuals on heterosexual Turkish university students' attitudes towards homosexuality. Sakalli, N., Uğurlu, O. Journal of homosexuality. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Transference and countertransference in homosexuality--changing psychoanalytic views. Kwawer, J.S. American journal of psychotherapy. (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Neuroendocrine response to estrogen and sexual orientation. Gladue, B.A., Green, R., Hellman, R.E. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Azithromycin for treatment of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex infection in patients with AIDS. Young, L.S., Wiviott, L., Wu, M., Kolonoski, P., Bolan, R., Inderlied, C.B. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. AIDS in haemophiliacs, parenteral drug abusers, and homosexuals. Fuchs, D., Wachter, H., Wille, R. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Amyl nitrite use by homosexuals. McManus, T.J., Starrett, L.A., Harris, J.R. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Decreased 5' nucleotidase activity in lymphocytes from asymptomatic sexually active homosexual men and patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Murray, J.L., Reuben, J.M., Munn, C.G., Mansell, P.W., Newell, G.R., Hersh, E.M. Blood (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Randomized controlled trial of adenine arabinoside 5'-monophosphate in chronic active hepatitis B: comparison of the efficacy in heterosexual and homosexual patients. Marcellin, P., Ouzan, D., Degos, F., Brechot, C., Metman, E.H., Degott, C., Chevalier, M., Berthelot, P., Trepo, C., Benhamou, J.P. Hepatology (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Infection with human T lymphotropic virus types I and II in sexually transmitted disease clinics in Baltimore and New Orleans. Wiktor, S.Z., Cannon, R.O., Atkinson, W.L., Lutz, B., Hook, E.W., Blattner, W.A., Quinn, T.C. J. Infect. Dis. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Neopterin as a predictive marker for disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Fuchs, D., Spira, T.J., Hausen, A., Reibnegger, G., Werner, E.R., Felmayer, G.W., Wachter, H. Clin. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related pneumonitis with foscarnet: a double-blind placebo controlled study. Youle, M., Chanas, A., Gazzard, B. J. Infect. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Lifestyle and antiviral antibody studies among homosexual men in Denmark. Melbye, M., Biggar, R.J., Ebbesen, P., Andersen, H.K., Vestergaard, B.F. Acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica. Section B, Microbiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Gender and sexual orientation in relation to hypothalamic structures. Swaab, D.F., Gooren, L.J., Hofman, M.A. Horm. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Isolated thrombocytopenia in patients infected with HIV: treatment with intravenous gammaglobulin. Bussel, J.B., Haimi, J.S. Am. J. Hematol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Antibody responses to HIV-1 antigens are higher in HIV-1(+) intravenous drug users than in HIV-1(+) homosexuals. Jiang, J.D., Bekesi, G.J. Biomed. Pharmacother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Nitrite inhalants: historical perspective. Newell, G.R., Spitz, M.R., Wilson, M.B. NIDA Res. Monogr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Three open-label studies of oral interferon alpha in the treatment of HIV disease. Jordan, W.C. Journal of the National Medical Association. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. T4+ cell production of interferon gamma and the clinical spectrum of patients at risk for and with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Murray, H.W., Scavuzzo, D.A., Kelly, C.D., Rubin, B.Y., Roberts, R.B. Arch. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. In vitro modulation of purine enzyme metabolism and lymphocyte surface marker expression by thymosin fraction 5 in homosexual males. Murray, J.L., Reuben, J.M., Munn, C.G., Newell, G., Mansell, P.W., Hersh, E.M. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Quantification of CD8-positive lymphocytes in lymph node follicles from HIV-infected male homosexuals and controls. Brask, S., Hager, H., Pallesen, G., Porwit, A., Biberfeld, P., Gerstoft, J. Acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica. Section A, Pathology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Day-to-day variations in serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in homosexual males. Halbreich, U., Segal, S., Chowers, I. Biol. Psychiatry (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Opioid receptors on white blood cells: effect of HIV infection and methadone treatment. Beck, M., Mirmohammadsadegh, A., Franz, B., Blanke, J., Hengge, U.R. Pain (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Modulation of T- and B-lymphocyte functions by isoprinosine in homosexual subjects with prodromata and in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Tsang, P.H., Tangnavarad, K., Solomon, S., Bekesi, J.G. J. Clin. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Serum triglycerides, HIV infection, and highly active antiretroviral therapy, Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1996 to 1998. Groupe d'Epidémiologie Clinique du Sida en Aquitaine (GECSA). Thiébaut, R., Dabis, F., Malvy, D., Jacqmin-Gadda, H., Mercié, P., ValentinVD, n.u.l.l. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Auxotypes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women. Givan, K.F., Jaeger, R. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Abnormal lymphocyte response to exogenous interleukin-2 in homosexuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS related complex (ARC). Murray, J.L., Hersh, E.M., Reuben, J.M., Munn, C.G., Mansell, P.W. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Defective T cell colony formation and IL-2 receptor expression in HIV-infected homosexuals: relationship between functional abnormalities and CD4 cell numbers. Winkelstein, A., Kingsley, L.A., Weaver, L.D., Machen, L.L. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Influence of C4 null genes on infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Cameron, P.U., Cobain, T.J., Zhang, W.J., Kay, P.H., Dawkins, R.L. British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. The relationship between affective and cognitive components of homophobic reaction. Ernulf, K.E., Innala, S.M. Archives of sexual behavior. (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. Specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies in sera from patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC) and healthy homosexuals. Warren, R.Q., Johnson, E.A., Donnelly, R.P., Lavia, M.F., Tsang, K.Y. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  37. Serum lipid concentration with reference to the clinical and immunological status of HIV infected men. Christeff, N., Lortholary, O., Casassus, P., Thobie, N., Dalle, M.T., Veyssier, P., Guillevin, L., Nunez, E.A. Annales de médecine interne. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Jejunal mucosal architecture and fat absorption in male homosexuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Miller, A.R., Griffin, G.E., Batman, P., Farquar, C., Forster, S.M., Pinching, A.J., Harris, J.R. Q. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  39. Epidemiology of AIDS and HIV infection in the Caribbean. Narain, J.P., Hull, B., Hospedales, C.J., Mahabir, S., Bassett, D.C. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization. (1989) [Pubmed]
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