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MeSH Review

Gender Identity

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Disease relevance of Gender Identity


Psychiatry related information on Gender Identity


High impact information on Gender Identity

  • They have plasma testosterone levels in the high normal range, show an excellent response to testosterone and are unique models for evaluating the effect of testosterone, as compared with a female upbringing, in determining gender identity [11].
  • It has been proposed that gender identity and sexual orientation are influenced by the prenatal sex steroid milieu [12].
  • The women with anomalous dominance (consisting of left-handed and ambidextrous as well as right-handed women with first-degree non-right-handed relatives) were compared to women with standard dominance (right-handed women with all right-handed first-degree relatives) on the Bem Test of Sex Role Identity and a tomboy scale [13].
  • Gender role development in two clinical syndromes: Turner syndrome versus constitutional short stature [14].
  • Since the virilization was too developed to change the sex role, the patient remained as a male subject without cortisol replacement therapy and underwent a plastic operation to construct the penile urethra [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gender Identity

  • Thus, while androgen action plays a role in the process, additional undefined psychological, social, and/or biologic factors must be determinants of gender identity/role behavior [16].
  • Plasma steroid hormones in relation to behavioral sex role reversal in the spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia [17].
  • Furthermore, the rare men with mutations that impair estrogen synthesis or the estrogen receptor have male gender role behavior [18].
  • Data were collected before and after training and again one month after the end of the training using the Rotter's Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement Scale, Sex Role Inventory, Assertive Scale, Esteem Scale, and Interpersonal Communication Satisfaction Inventory [19].
  • The Chinese Gender Role Stress scales. Factor structure and predictive validity [20].

Biological context of Gender Identity


Anatomical context of Gender Identity


Gene context of Gender Identity


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gender Identity


  1. Effects on gender identity of prenatal androgens and genital appearance: evidence from girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Berenbaum, S.A., Bailey, J.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Clinical, hormonal, behavioral, and genetic characteristics of androgen insensitivity syndrome in a Brazilian cohort: five novel mutations in the androgen receptor gene. Melo, K.F., Mendonca, B.B., Billerbeck, A.E., Costa, E.M., Inácio, M., Silva, F.A., Leal, A.M., Latronico, A.C., Arnhold, I.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Homosexuality as a specific risk factor for eating disorders in men. Russell, C.J., Keel, P.K. The International journal of eating disorders. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Iatrogenic homosexuality: gender identity in seven 46,XX chromosomal females with hyperadrenocortical hermaphroditism born with a penis, three reared as boys, four reared as girls. Money, J., Daléry, J. Journal of homosexuality. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Gender identity and recalled gender related childhood play-behaviour in adult individuals with different forms of intersexuality. Richter-Appelt, H., Discher, C., Gedrose, B. Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die biologisch-anthropologische Literatur. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Gender role, sexual orientation and suicide risk. Fitzpatrick, K.K., Euton, S.J., Jones, J.N., Schmidt, N.B. Journal of affective disorders. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Psychosexual development in genetic males assigned female: the cloacal exstrophy experience. Reiner, W.G. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Gender roles and human sexuality. Clingman, J., Fowler, M.G. Journal of personality assessment. (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. The personality variable openness to experience as it relates to homophobia. Cullen, J.M., Wright, L.W., Alessandri, M. Journal of homosexuality. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. The stress of coming out. Gershman, H. American journal of psychoanalysis. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Androgens and the evolution of male-gender identity among male pseudohermaphrodites with 5alpha-reductase deficiency. Imperato-McGinley, J., Peterson, R.E., Gautier, T., Sturla, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. The dermatoglyphic characteristics of transsexuals: is there evidence for an organizing effect of sex hormones. Slabbekoorn, D., van Goozen, S.H., Sanders, G., Gooren, L.J., Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Differences in feminine and masculine characteristics in women as a function of handedness: support for the Geschwind/Galaburda theory of brain organization. Casey, M.B., Nuttall, R.L. Neuropsychologia. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Gender role development in two clinical syndromes: Turner syndrome versus constitutional short stature. Downey, J., Ehrhardt, A.A., Morishima, A., Bell, J.J., Gruen, R. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Pituitary-gonadal function in a female hermaphrodite with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Ishida, H., Kukutani, K., Imao, S., Hirose, K., Isurugi, K. J. Urol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Male pseudohermaphroditism due to 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency. Diagnosis, psychological evaluation, and management. Mendonca, B.B., Inacio, M., Arnhold, I.J., Costa, E.M., Bloise, W., Martin, R.M., Denes, F.T., Silva, F.A., Andersson, S., Lindqvist, A., Wilson, J.D. Medicine (Baltimore) (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Plasma steroid hormones in relation to behavioral sex role reversal in the spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia. Fivizzani, A.J., Oring, L.W. Biol. Reprod. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Androgens, androgen receptors, and male gender role behavior. Wilson, J.D. Hormones and behavior. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Evaluation of an assertiveness training program on nursing and medical students' assertiveness, self-esteem, and interpersonal communication satisfaction. Lin, Y.R., Shiah, I.S., Chang, Y.C., Lai, T.J., Wang, K.Y., Chou, K.R. Nurse education today. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. The Chinese Gender Role Stress scales. Factor structure and predictive validity. Tang, C.S., Lau, B.H. Behavior modification. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Independent CPI masculinity and femininity scales: psychological correlates and a sex-role typology. Baucom, D.H. Journal of personality assessment. (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Birth order and sibling sex ratio in two samples of Dutch gender-dysphoric homosexual males. Blanchard, R., Zucker, K.J., Cohen-Kettenis, P.T., Gooren, L.J., Bailey, J.M. Archives of sexual behavior. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Study of the effect of estradiol on gonadotrophin levels in untreated male-to-female transsexuals. Goodman, R.E., Anderson, D.C., Bu'lock, D.E., Sheffield, B., Lynch, S.S., Butt, W.R. Archives of sexual behavior. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Forensic application of a rapid and quantitative DNA sex test by amplification of the X-Y homologous gene amelogenin. Mannucci, A., Sullivan, K.M., Ivanov, P.L., Gill, P. Int. J. Legal Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Testosterone during pregnancy and gender role behavior of preschool children: a longitudinal, population study. Hines, M., Golombok, S., Rust, J., Johnston, K.J., Golding, J. Child development. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Is there a gender difference of somatostatin-receptor density in the human brain? Pichler, R., Maschek, W., Crespillo, C., Esteva, I., Soriguer, F. Neuro Endocrinol. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Changes in anthropometry with testosterone therapy in a female with gender identity disorder. Yamasaki, H., Douchi, T., Nagata, Y. Endocr. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Etiology and treatment of homosexuality: a review. Acosta, F.X. Archives of sexual behavior. (1975) [Pubmed]
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