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MeSH Review

Venae Cavae

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Disease relevance of Venae Cavae

  • The aim of this study was to determine the temporal changes and the location of VEGF and bFGF expression in a rat model of venous thrombus resolution.Design and Methods: Thrombi were induced in the inferior venae cavae of rats by creating a stenosis to reduce blood flow by 80% to 90% [1].

High impact information on Venae Cavae

  • There was production of plasma lipid choline by the upper- and lower-body regions drained by the venae cavae [2].
  • Significant differences were observed in vena cava with diameters greater than 22 mm where capture rate was 76% as opposed to 86% in venae cavae less than 22 mm (p = 0.01) [3].
  • The venae cavae were ligated, and the right ventricle was cannulated through the pulmonic valve to collect coronary sinus effluent for measurement of coronary outflow O2 tension, adenosine, and inosine [4].
  • Fifteen homemade retrievable coils with thermal shape memory (TSM) nitinol wire cores were acutely deployed in the abdominal aortae or inferior venae cavae of four pigs (part II) [5].
  • Blood samples for endotoxin measurement were drawn simultaneously from the superior and inferior venae cavae before heparin administration, 5 and 50 minutes after the onset of bypass, 5 minutes after aortic declamping, at the end of bypass, and 1, 2, and 20 hours after the end of cardiopulmonary bypass [6].

Anatomical context of Venae Cavae


Associations of Venae Cavae with chemical compounds

  • Small latex balloons were introduced into the venae cavae of rats in whom aortocaval fistulae had been surgically created 3 weeks earlier [10].
  • After median sternotomy, intravenous heparin was administered (3 mg. per kilogram) before the aorta and the superior and inferior venae cavae were cannulated for bypass [11].
  • The results of this investigation show that the vagus has a powerful action on the venae cavae resembling that on the atria and mediated by acetylcholine [12].
  • In Exp. 1, six gilts (BW 53 kg) with catheters in their venae cavae were used in a 5x5+1 Latin square design to determine the amount of infused urea needed to mimic the plasma urea concentration of pigs fed a 25% CP diet [13].
  • The blood supply to the cranial venae cavae on both sides and to the heart was studied macroscopically in 40 adult laboratory shrews (Suncus murinus) of both sexes injected either with Neoprene latex into the abdominal aorta (25 animals) or with Mercox into the left ventricle (15 animals) [14].

Gene context of Venae Cavae

  • The location and orientation of the valves, the atrial chambers, venae cavae, and pulmonary hili were found to be the most critical information [15].
  • To assess the effect of vasopressin (VP) on systemic capacity (SC), blood was drained from the venae cavae to an oxygenator and returned to the aorta at a constant rate so that changes in SC could be measured as the inverse of changes in oxygenator volume in 17 anesthetized pigs [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Venae Cavae

  • Two cases of the double inferior venae cavae (IVC) were found during the student dissection practice in 1997 in Gifu University School of Medicine. On the first case (70-year-old male), the calibers of the right and left IVC were 15 mm and 13 mm, respectively [17].
  • It shows that locating the inferior vena cava between the superior venae cavae may lead to better-balanced lung perfusion [18].


  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor are found in resolving venous thrombi. Waltham, M., Burnand, K.G., Collins, M., Smith, A. J. Vasc. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Uptake and output of various forms of choline by organs of the conscious chronically catheterized sheep. Robinson, B.S., Snoswell, A.M., Runciman, W.B., Upton, R.N. Biochem. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Experimental embolic capture by asymmetric Greenfield filters. Greenfield, L.J., Proctor, M.C. J. Vasc. Surg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of nitrous oxide on contractile function and metabolism of the isolated heart. Stowe, D.F., Monroe, S.M., Marijic, J., Rooney, R.T., Bosnjak, Z.J., Kampine, J.P. Anesthesiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. New embolization coil containing a nitinol wire core: preliminary in vitro and in vivo experiences. Kónya, A., Maxin, M., Wright, K.C. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Does steroid pretreatment increase endotoxin release during clinical cardiopulmonary bypass? Wan, S., LeClerc, J.L., Huynh, C.H., Schmartz, D., DeSmet, J.M., Yim, A.P., Vincent, J.L. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Immunocytochemical localization of atrial natriuretic peptide in the venae cavae and the pulmonary veins of the rat. Larsen, T.H. Histochem. J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Modification by some antagonists of the shape changes of venous endothelial cells in response to inflammatory agents in vitro. Northover, A.M. Agents Actions (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Method for in situ evaluation of superoxide production by pulmonary macrophages in the rat. Mochida, S., Ogata, I., Ohta, Y., Oka, T., Fujiwara, K. Acta Pathol. Jpn. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Latex vascular occlusion balloons: histopathologic evaluation in a high-flow aortocaval fistula model. Quisling, R.G., Mickle, J.P., Ballinger, W. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. The effect of different methods of protecting the myocardium on lysosomal activation and acid phosphatase activity in the dog heart after one hour of cardiopulmonary bypass. McCallister, L.P., Munger, B.L., Hughes, H.C. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Vagal control of the cranial venae cavae of the rat heart. Jones, J.F., O'Leary, D.M., Pickering, M. Exp. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of infusion of urea into the vena cava on feed intake of finishing gilts. Chen, H.Y., Lewis, A.J., Miller, P.S., Yen, J.T. J. Anim. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Blood supply to the cranial venae cavae and the heart in the laboratory shrew (Suncus murinus). Isomura, G. J. Anat. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Development of a completely implantable total artificial heart. Fujimoto, L.K., Jacobs, G., Chen, J.F., Smith, W.A., Ishikawa, M., Tishko, D., Kiraly, R.J., Butler, K.C., Nosé, Y. ASAIO transactions / American Society for Artificial Internal Organs. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of vasopressin on systemic capacity. Welt, F.G., Rutlen, D.L. Am. J. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Two cases of the double inferior venae cavae. Yano, R., Hayakawa, D., Emura, S., Chen, H., Ozawa, Y., Taguchi, H., Shoumura, S. Okajimas folia anatomica Japonica. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Flow study of an extracardiac connection with persistent left superior vena cava. de Zélicourt, D.A., Pekkan, K., Parks, J., Kanter, K., Fogel, M., Yoganathan, A.P. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (2006) [Pubmed]
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